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virus

a potentially damaging computer program

worms

copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down computer or network

trojan horse

hides within or looks like legitimate program until triggered

payload

destructive event, that is delivered

antivirus program

identifies and removes computer viruses

denial of service attack

an assault which disrupts computer access to an internet service such as the web or email

back door

a program or set of instructions in a program that allows users to bypass security controls when accessing a computer resource

spoofing

a technique intruders use to make their network or internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network

fire wall

security system consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized intrusion

personal firewall

program that protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions

possessed object

item that you must carry to gain access to computer or facility

biometric device

authenticates person's identity using personal characteristics

software theft

act of stealing or illegally stealing software

business software alliance (BSA)

promotes better understanding of software privacy problems

encryption

process of converting plaintext (readable data) into ciphertext (unreadable characters)

certificate authority (CA)

authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates

secure sockets layer (SSL)

provides encryption of all data that passes between client and internet server

surge protector

protects computer and equipment from electrical power disturbances

IT code of conduct

written guidelines that helps determine whether computer action is ethical

cookie

small text file on your computer that contains data about you

spyware

program placed on computer without user's knowledge

adware

program that displays online advertisements

spam

unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients

computer forensics

discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks

computer vision syndrome (CVS)

eye and vision problems

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

inflammation of nerve that connects forearm to palm

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon due to repeated motion

ergonomics

applied science devoted to comfort, efficiency, and safety in workplace

information system (IS)

hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information

system analyst

responsible for designing and developing information system

project team

formed to work on project from beginning to end

gantt chart

popular tool used to plan and schedule large, complex projects

feasibility

measure of how suitable system development will be to the company

planning phase

begins when steering committee receives project request

analysis phase

conduct preliminary investigation

preliminary investigation

determine exact nature of problem or improvement and whether it is worth pursuing

process modeling

technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs

entity- relationship diagram (ERD)

tool that graphically shows connections among entities in system

data flow diagram (DFD)

tool that graphically shows flow of data in system

structured english

used to explain details of process

decision table

lists variety of conditions and actions that correspond to each condition

decision tree

shows conditions and actions graphically

data dictionary

stores name, description, and other details about each data item

object modeling

combines data with the process that act on data into single unit

unified modeling language (UML)

graphical tool for documenting system

turnkey solution

complete system provided by value added reseller

layout chart

input or output that contains programming like notations for data items

computer-aided software engineering (CASE)

software tools designed to support activities of system development cycle

implementation phase

construct or build new or modified system then deliver it to users

operation, support, and security phase

provides ongoing assistance after system in implemented

computer program

series of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks

assembly language

instructions made up of symbolic instructions codes, meaningful abbreviations and codes

procedural language

programmer writes instructions that tell computer what to accomplish and how to do it

COBOL

designed for business applications

C

powerful language originally designed to write system software

Object-oriented programming language (OOP)

used to implement object-oriented design

even-driven

checks for and responds to set of events

java

developed by sun microssystems; used just in time (JIT) compiler to convert bytecode into machine-dependent code

C++

includes all elements of C, plus additional features for working with object oriented concepts; used to develop database and web applications

C#

object oriented programming language based on C++; accepted as a stranded for web applications and XML-based web services; Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL)

Visual programming environment (VPE)

allows developers to drag and drop objects to build programs

visual studio

.NET is a set of technologies that allows program to run on internet

delphi

powerful program development tool; ideal for large-scale enterprise and web applications

nonprocedural language

the programmer writes english like instructions or interacts with a visual environment to retrieve data from files or a database

program development tools

user-friendly programs designed to assist both programmers and users in creating programs

RPG (report program generator)

nonprocedural language used for generating reports, accessing data, and updating data

4GL

non procedural language that allows access to data in database

pseudocode

uses condensed form of english to convey program logic

implementation

writing the code that translates the design into a program

syntax

rules that specify how to write instructions

extreme programming (XP)

coding and testing as soon as requirements are defined

debugging

located and correcting syntax and logic error, or bugs

online security service

website that evaluates your computer to check for internet and e-mail vulnerabilities

malware

programs that act without a users knowledge and deliberately alter the computer's operations

macro

instructions saved in software such as word processing or spread sheet program

inoculate

antivirus program records information such as file size and file creation date in a separate inoculation file

virus hoax

e-mail message that warns users of a nonexistent virus, worm, or trojan

botnet

a group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the internet that are used as part of a network that attacks other networks

proxy server

server outside the company's network that controls which communications pass into the company's network

audit trail

records in a file both successful and unsuccessful access atempts

identification

verifies that an individual is a valid user

authentication

verifies that the individual is the person he or she claims to be

piracy

unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software

license agreement

the right to use the software

uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

a device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a temporary permanent loss of power

full backup

copies all of the files in the computer

selective backup

users choose which folders and files to include in a backup

three-generation backup

preserve three copies of important files

information privacy

refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collect and use of information about them

phishing

is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mails message that attempts to obtain your personal financial information

pharming

a scam, where ta perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing

social engineering

gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others

employee monitoring

use of computers to observe, record, and review an employee's use of a computer

content filtering

process of restricting access to certain material on the web

web filtering software

program that restricts access to specified web sites

system development cycle

a set of activities used to build an information system, the length of each activity varies from one system to the next

standards

sets of rules and procedures a company expects employees to accept and follow

steering committee

a decision-making body in a company

project leader

manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project

project management

process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during the system development cycle

use case diagram

graphically shows how actors interact with the information system

class diagram

graphically shows classes and subclasses in a system

packaged software

prewritten software available for purchase

horizontal market software

meets needs of many companies

vertical market software

design for particular industry

custom software

matches the company's requirements exactly

outsource

having an outside source develop it for them

mockup

sample of input or output that contains actual data

prototype

working model of proposed system

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