disposal and respiration
provides protection from dessication and reduces the dependence of tetrapods on water
How is the amniotic egg a key innovation?
amniotic egg, ribcage, keratin, internal fertilization
What are the shared derived traits of amniotes?
parareptiles, turtles, diapsids
Reptiles consist of what three groups?
no fenestration, large stocky herbivores
What are characteristics of parareptiles?
no holes in skull behind eye socket
large aquatic reptiles, archosaurs, lepidosaurs
The Diapsid form what three groups?
crocidilians, birds, extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs
The Archosaurs consist of what group of animals?
tuataras and squamates
The Lepidosaurs consist of what groups?
reptiles that returned to the seas
Archosaurs are known as the .....
An archosaurs...large aquatic predators...lots of species
first flying tetrapods...different wing design than birds and bats...
carnivors, herbivores, omnivores, largest herbivores to live on land, largest carnivores such as the T-Rex
bipedal saurischian dinosaurs, birds
What are the theropods and what are they closest related too...
The Archeopteryx is famous for being the
enhances hunting and survival, migration
How is the evolution of flight a key innovation?
wings, feathers, sternum, loss of teeth, endothermic, four chambered heart, excellent eye sight, larger brain
What traits of birds make this clade highly derived...
single temporal fenestra, heterodont
What are the shared derived traits of synapsids?
ectothermic, predators, moved like ancestral amniotes
Describe a characteristic of a synapsid that was before the dinosaurs
more differentiated teeth, legs underneath them, more mammal like, predators
Describe the characteristics of Therapsids and Cynodonts
small insectivores, hair, nocturnal
What were early mammals like