chapter 17

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pasteurization

milk is heated to destroy harmful bacteria

ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing

a preservation method that uses higher temperatures than regular pasteurization to increase the shelf life of foods like milk

homogenization

a mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk

milkfat

the fat portion of milk

milk solids

contain most of the vitamins, minerals, protein, and sugar found in milk

curd

the solid part

whey

the liquid part

unripened cheese

are ready for marketing as soon as the whey is removed

ripened cheese

controlled amounts of bacteria, mold, yeast, or enzymes are used to make ripened cheese

process cheese

cheeses that are made into other products from natural cheeses

scum

a solid layer that often forms on the surface of milk during heating

scorching

burning that results in a color change

curdling

high temperatures, acids, tannins, enzymes, and salts can cause milk proteins to coagulate and form

white sauce

a starch thickened milk product

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