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osteocytes

bone cells; osteoblasts (creating); osteoclasts (destroying)

ossification

stages of bone formation

flat bones

thin, flat, curved (costals (ribs), cranial (skull), sternum (breastbone), scapula

articulation

Joints

long bones

long as they are wide

parts long bone

periosteum, diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal disc, medullary cavity, articular cartilage

synovial joints

freely movable joints, 'joint capsule' surrounds the joint

two layers of synovial joints

outer: stratum fibrosum (surrounds ends of bone) inner: stratum synovium ( lots blood flow/no nerve)

calcium

makes bones stronger

vertebrae

26 bones; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccyx

hypomobility

less mobility than what you normally have

R.O.M.

range of motion

sprain

ligaments only

1st degree sprain

pain, swelling but abler to bear weight and move thru normal R.O.M

2nd degree sprain

larger tear, inability to bear weight w/o pain, compromised ROM

3rd degree sprain

serious injury, rupture of ligament w/ inability to bear weight, loss of normal ROM

skeletal muscle

type of tissue; straight; voluntary

cardiac muscle

boxy shaped; striated; involuntary

smooth muscle

irregular shaped;nonstriated;involuntary

fascia layers

connective tissue; endomysium (indiv. muscle fiber); perimysium (around a bundle or fasicle); epimysium (covers entire muscle)

lactic acid

sore muscles; built up because not enough O2

intercalcated disc

allows all of the areas of the heart muscle to contract rhythmically

fast twitch white

100 yard dash; contract fast and fatigues fast TYPE OF FIBER

fast twitch red

contracts fast; fatigues more slowly; 1 mile run TYPE OF FIBER

slow twitch red

contracts slowly and fatigues slowly; marathon TYPE OF FIBER

period of contraction

latent period;contraction period;relaxation period; refraction period

latent period

muscle at rest

contraction period

myofilaments slide past each other

relaxation period

original position

refractory period

replenishing supply of O2, glucose, & ATP

function of muscle tissue

motion, posture, heat production

sliding filament theory

1.nerve impulse 2.calcium release 3.sliding filament 4.relaxation

myoglobin

protein that transports oxygen

length of fiber

microscopic to over a foot

nervous tissue cell type

neuron (dendrite, cell body, axon, axon terminal); neurogalia

sympathetic

'fight or flight'; stimulated; blood goes to muscles

afferent

ascending-sensory

efferent

descending-motor

meningies

cushion/protective covering; 3 layers that surround and protect the brain.

dura mater

hard mother;outer layer

arachnoid mater

sub-arachnoid mater (weblike); middle layer

pia mater

soft mother; inner layer; next to brain

parasympathetic

relaxes; blood goes to digestive and reproductive; 'Feed and Breed'

PNS

cranial nerves (12); spinal nerves (31)

CNS

brain and spinal cord

cranial nerves

1-12 OOOTTAFVGVAH

Optic nerve

I. vision

Olfactory

II. smell

Oculomotor

III. move eye & pupil size

Troclear

IV. move eye

Trigeminal

V. chewing, sensation in scalp, teeth, face and eyes

Abducens nerve

VI. moves eyes

Facial nerve

VII. Expression, tears, and taste

Vestibulocochlear nerve

VIII. sense of hearing and balance

Glosssopharyngeal nerve

IX. taste, swallowing and blood pressure

Vagus

X. longest nerve; smooth muscle, digestion and BP

Accessory Nerve

XI. swallowing, moving shoulders and head

Hypoglossal Nerve

XII. speech

endocrine system

bodies communication and feedback system

pancreas

endocrine gland; secretes glucagon and insulin

pituitary

hGH; LH; FSH-endocrine gland

thyroid

secretes calcitonin

parathyroid

secretes parathyroid hormone; endocrine gland

adrenals

adrenoline

pineal

melotonin

peptide hormone

lock and Key; receptors attach

steroid hormone

diffuses through membrane-hormone glands are adrenal and gonad-all the rest are peptide

accessories of the eye

eyebrow, lids, lashes, lacrimal glands, canthus'

ear parts

outer- auricle, external auditory canal; middle- tympanic membrane, ossicles, eustatian tube; inner- oval window, cochlear, semicircular canal, and vestibule.

endochondral

ossification; when cartilage turns to bone

8 stages

cartilage model; bone collar; P.O.C; nutrient artery; epiphyseal disc; S.O.C.; medullary cavity; epiphyseal line

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