Why would someone who claimed to be Messiah have to prove it?
Not everyone was eager for the Messiah God promised. There were specific criteria that needed to be met. Genealogical, Prophetic, and Physical evidence-perform miracles
What is the genre called "gospel"
A document that proclaims that Jesus was the proclaimed Messiah and gives evidence to demonstrate that claim.
What is the synoptic problem?
The relationship of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Some verses contain information similar to one or both of the others.
What is the difference between the 2-source and 4-source theory?
2-source theory- Matthew and Luke were derived from 2 sources: Mark and Q
4-source theory- Matthew and Luke were derived from 4 separate earlier sources with additional material added
What is Q, and why is it significant?
Q is hypothetical. It is the material common to both Matthew and Luke, but absent in Mark. There has been no evidence found to support that Q exists.
How does this book suggest that the gospel accounts originated?
By eyewitness accounts
How and why was the birth of John unique?
His birth was foretold by an angel. His father, Zacharias was punished for his disbelief and was unable to speak until the child was born and he named him John. John would be a nazarite for life
How and why was the birth of Jesus unique?
His birth was foretold by an angel. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born to the virgin Mary. He was the promised Messiah
Trace the activities of Jesus up to the peak of His popularity
Time of Inauguration (29-31CE)
Baptism (29), Temptation in wilderness, Initial calling of the disciples, Miracle in Cana, Passover(30CE), Trip through Samaria, Ministry in Galilee, Passover(31CE)
Year of Popularity (31-32CE)
Healing ministry/Sabbath controversy, sending out of the 12, Feeding the 5000, Passover(32CE)
Year of Oppression (32-33CE)
Trip to Phoenicia, Ministry in Galilee, Feeding of the 4000, Transfiguration, 3 trips to Jerusalem, Sukkoth (Sept 32), Hanukkah (Dec 32), Passover/Crucifixion (Apr 32), Resurrection, Ascension (May 33)
What are parables, and why did Jesus use them?
They are stories with a heavenly meaning. They were meant to shift the focus from the Law to the fulfillment of the Law in the person of Jesus.
Why did many people stop following Jesus after He fed the 5000?
Jesus gave the conversation a spiritual focus by asserting that He was bread come down from heaven. This statement totally lost the people who were upset both because He refused to do more miracles and because He claimed to have come down from heaven. Unable to follow or accept the spiritual truths Jesus taught, the audience grumbled and began to leave in disgust.
Why did Jesus refuse to give a sign to the Pharisees when He returned to the region of Galilee?
Because they demanded a sign and didn't show faith
What was the Mount of Transfiguration?
This is the mountain where Jesus showed Peter, James, and John that He truly was the Son of God and told them not to tell anyone of the event until after His resurrection. Moses and Elijah appeared next to Jesus. Jesus' clothes and face became radiant and they heard God say "This is my Son, whom I love. Listen to Him?
Why did Jesus refuse to travel with His brothers to the festival of Sukkoth, but went by Himself later?
Hid brothers encouraged Him to go but He demurred. It was the method that was at issue, not the trip. They encouraged Him to "Show yourself to the world" Jesus told them it was not the right time. They left and Jesus continued His practice of traveling in as much secrecy as His public position would allow.
Why did Jesus wait 3 days before going to the home of Lazarus when He heard Lazarus was sick?
Jesus knew Lazarus was dead already. It may have been to show that He has the power to raise the dead and the 3 days were a symbol for His own death and resurrection.
How do we determine the date of the crucifixion?
We pick the day of crucifixion as a Friday because Jesus was dead 3 days and 3 nights.
We pick the date because it was the day after the Passover
We pick the year by the reign of Caiaphas as high priest and Pilate as governor. 14 Nisan fell on a Friday in 30,33,& 36 CE. We chose 33 based on when John the Baptist began his work. 30 is too soon and 36 is too late. 3APR33
What was the triumphal entry?
When Jesus entered Jerusalem to the acclamation of crowds.
Trace the events of Jesus' last week.
The triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Came down the Mount of Olives
He cursed the fig tree and it withered
He talked about judgement, His crucifixion and resurrection
Describe the last night of Jesus' life.
He washed the disciples feet
Ate the meal of the Last Supper/Passover
He announced someone would betray Him
Gave the special morsel to Judas-the traitor
He added a new tradition to the Passover- He took the bread and the wine and gave them symbolism
He tried to comfort the disciples
He prayed for the disciples and Himself
The were led to Jesus by Judas and He was captured
Why were the trials of Jesus mockeries?
They were done illegally
How do we know that Jesus really died?
When He was stabbed by the soldier, fluid came out that was a mixture of blood and water- clearly showing that Jesus was dead
What are the evidences that Jesus was resurrected?
The tomb was empty and an angel said He had risen
He showed His battered body as proof
What did Jesus do after His resurrection?
He spent several weeks with the disciples teaching about the Kingdom of God
Why was the last question the disciples asked Jesus about the Kingdom?
They thought the 2nd coming had happened and it was time for the events of the 2nd coming.
Trace the events of Pentecost.
All Jews were directed to appear before the Lord at the central sanctuary.
A strong wind filled the house and neighborhood
A tongue of fire appeared in the room and separated into smaller pieces and rested above each head
The began talking in tongues
The Galatians understood all the disciples speaking in their own languages
Describe the conflict between the Jews who accepted Jesus as the Messiah and those who didn't.
some of them still followed many of the Jewish rituals
What are some of the problems the early church faced?
A married couple, Ananias & Sapphira proclaimed they would donate the money of their sale of land to the apostles but lied about how much it was- they lied to God
The Sadducees didn't like the resurrection message and jailed the apostles
Controversy over the daily food distribution
Why was Stephen stoned?
Because he performed super-normal acts and ministered about Jesus to the widows. The men from the Freedmen synagogue began to argue with him, drug him out of the city and had him stoned.
What led to Saul's conversion?
Saul was blinded by an encounter with Jesus. When Ananias prayed for him his vision was restored and he became a believer.
Describe the conversion of Cornelius.
Cornelius sent for Peter. During Peters prayers he had a vision that told him not to call unclean what God had cleaned. Cornelius and Peter shared their visions with each other and the Holy Spirit fell upon Cornelius.
Why did Peter have to go to Jerusalem to defend his ministry to Cornelius?
The people of Jerusalem still thought of the Gentiles as unclean
How did James die and what happened to Peter at the same time?
James was executed. Peter was arrested and put in jail to await trial by Herod. Peter was visited by an angel and he walked out of the jail. He sent word to James, the 1/2 brother of Jesus, and then left for an undisclosed location
Why was the letter of James written?
It was written to Jewish believers (the 12 tribes). The context of the letter was persecution and addressed several specific issues that would have risen among the messianic Jews. It reads more like a book of wisdom than a letter.
How did Paul end up as a missionary?
The Gentiles were ministered to at Cyprus and Paul became more open to direct evangelism of the Gentiles.
Describe Paul's first journey as a missionary.
Journey to Cyprus- started here because it was Barnabas' home.
Journey to Galatia- They were on their way to Antioch- a province in Galatia.
Returned to Antioch. (pg 456-459)
What factors indicate the date and audience of the letter to the Galatians?
The view on who were the Galatians. One view identifies the Galatians as inhabitants of the northern portion of the province of Galatia. This would have been visited during Paul's 2nd journey and the letter would have been written during his 3rd journey.
Others view the Galatians as inhabitants of the cities in the southern part of the province which Paul visited during his 1st journey. Several clues point to the earlier date- No record of Paul visiting cities in northern Galatia. No mention of the decisions made in the Jerusalem Council..
What was the purpose and process of the Jerusalem Council?
Purpose: Any point of controversy within the church. The relationship of Gentiles to Jesus the Messiah. Do the Gentiles have to follow Jewish rituals.
Process: Testimony would be heard and then the council's leader gave his conclusions.
How did the Jerusalem Council end?
The overall suggestion seems to be standard whereby the Gentiles were not under Jewish law, but would avoid specific practices that offended Jewish believers.
Why did Paul and Barnabas split up for their 2nd journey?
Barnabas wanted to take John Mark and Paul disagreed because John Mark had left them on the 1st journey.
Why did Paul and company at this stage plan on going to Europe?
Because a ma from Macedonia appeared to him and asked them to help.
What is the hermeneutical difficulty the authors of the text (Fee & Stuart) mention about Acts?
In the New Testament we think of the narratives as biblical precedents for our own lives, but it tells the history of the early church and it serves as the normative model for the church at all times.
Much of the division in the church today and throughout history, comes from lack of precision in interpreting the events chronicled in Acts.
To understand Acts, one must consider its historical elements and its theological intentions.
Understand the "what & why" of Acts detailed by the text book.
WHAT: Description of the 1st geographical expansion to the Gentile world.
Description of the further, ever westward expansion into the Gentile world- now Europe
Description of the events that move Paul and the Gospel to Rome
WHY: Interest in movement of the Gospel to become a worldwide phenomenon
No interest in the lives of the apostles
Not seeming to be interested in standardization
Wants Acts to serve as the model. (the big picture)
Who has the leading role in the book of Acts?
The Holy Spirit
Acts covers the expansion of the church from Jerusalem to Rome
Understand the principles mentioned on pg 121-125 on the teaching intentions of historical narratives
1. The Word of god in Acts: may be regarded as normative for Christians is related primarily to what any given narrative was intended to teach
2. Reflects and inspired author's understanding of things- but does not have the same teaching value as what the narrative was intended to teach
3. Historical precedent: must be related too intent- established intent is equal to normative information
What is the hermeneutical difficulty of the Gospels the authors mention?
Understanding the "Kingdom of God"
Why do we have 4 Gospels according to text?
Having 4 gospels shows insight that we might not have gained from just one gospel
What do the writers say is the "nature of their genius"?
It was given to us by God in this way and they were written about Jesus, not by Jesus- this is some of the genius not weakness
Why is it important that today's readers of the Gospels understand 1st century Judaism?
We need to know why they didn't believe and why Jesus had so little contact with them.
How were Jesus' deeds and sayings preserved prior to the writing of the Gospels?
They were given orally during a period of 30 years or more
Know the need for understanding historical content as it relates to the Gospels.
We need to know who the audience was to broaden our perspective and help understand the point of what Jesus said.
What are "periscopes" referring to in the Gospels?
Short stories or excerpts from the Gospel.
What do the authors mean by "thinking horizontally"?
It is usually helpful to be aware of the parallels in the other Gospels.
Which Gospel do they advocate was written 1st? What other 2 Gospels used Mark as a basic source? Who wrote independently >
Matthew & Luke
What do the authors mean by "thinking vertically"?
To be aware of both historical contexts- that of Jesus and the evangelist
According to the text, what 3 principles were at work in the composition of the Gospels?
Selectivity- What narratives and teachings suited their purpose.
Arrangement- How they put together what was selected
Adaptation- What explains most of the so-called discrepancies among the Gospels
Which principle best explains the (so-called) discrepancies among the Gospels?
The basic theological framework of the New Testament is?
Why is this clarification important?
The cross and the resurrection has begun to pass away and the age to come is consummated
Since parables are so simple, they generally are not misinterpreted.
One problem with interpreting parables is endless allegorical misinterpretations.
One key to understanding parables lies in understanding the _________ to whom they were spoken
When Jesus used parables in His teaching He fully intended to be understood
What is the story parables function?
As a means of calling forth a response on the part of the hearer
What do Fee & Stuart mean by "points of reference" as it relates to parables?
Various parts of the story with which one identifies with as it is being told
Understand the nuances of Luke 7:36-50,
The money lender and the 2 debtors. Simon and athe harlot are like the 2 debtors. This parable is a word of judgement calling for a response from Simon
Understand the difference between parable and allegory.
Allegory- A story where each element of the story meant something quite foreign to the story itself
Parable- A simple story
Understand the 3 points on the task of interpretation at the top of page 155
1. Sit and listen to the parable again and again
2. Identify the points of reference intended by Jesus that would have been picked up by the original hearers.
3. Try to determine how the original hearers would have identified with the story and therefore what they would have heard
Who were the likely original audience of the parable of the workers in the vineyard
Understand the key themes of the Kingdom of God parable
1. Judgement is impending, disaster and catastrophe are at the door
2. Good News, salvation is freely offered to all