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Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?
a. Blood pressure increases as salt intake rises
b. Immune system is activated when salt intake increases
c. Muscle cramps occur when body sodium becomes depleted
d. Thirst response is activated upon consumption of a sodium-rich food

A

In a healthy individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?
a. Equilibrium
b. Slight positive balance
c. Strong positive balance
d. Moderate positive balance

A

The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
a. dehydration.
b. constipation.
c. osteoporosis.
d. hypertension

D

Sam has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure. His doctor recommended adopting the DASH diet plan. Along with including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, he was also advised to reduce daily sodium intake to no more than 2000 mg. How much salt (g) would be allowed under Sam's restriction?
a. 5
b. 6.5
c. 8
d. 9.5

A

Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?
a. Instant chocolate pudding is a low-sodium food
b. Processed foods contribute less than half of the sodium in our diets
c. Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cereals on a per-gram basis
d. Dairy products and meats represent major sources of sodium in our diets

C

Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
a. They can induce dehydration
b. They suppress the thirst mechanisms
c. They may lead to complete kidney failure
d. They reduce blood glucose concentration

A

What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?
a. Dehydration
b. Hyponatremia
c. Metabolic alkalosis
d. Elevated blood sodium

B

Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?
a. Calcium
b. Chloride
c. Potassium
d. Phosphorus

B

Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
a. Participates in wound healing
b. Helps maintain gastric acidity
c. Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
d. Protects bone structures against degeneration

B

Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
a. Participates in wound healing
b. Helps maintain gastric acidity
c. Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
d. Protects bone structures against degeneration

C

Which of the following is NOT among the features of potassium deficiency?
a. It leads to hyperglycemia
b. It leads to higher blood pressure
c. It can be prevented by consumption of potatoes
d. It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources

D

Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
a. Rickets
b. Arthritis
c. Low blood pressure
d. High blood pressure

D

Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency?
a. Extreme thirst
b. Muscle weakness
c. Profound sweating
d. Lowered blood pressure

B

Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?
a. Athletes who are body-builders
b. Construction workers in cold climates
c. Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables
d. Those who consume insufficient amounts of salted foods

C

Which of the following is NOT among the features of potassium in nutrition?
a. Processed foods are a major source
b. High intakes may protect against stroke
c. Per serving size, bananas are a rich source
d. Per serving size, legumes are a rich source

A

Which of the following is a feature of potassium supplements?
a. Can cause toxicity
b. Should always be taken with diuretics
c. Necessary in treatment of low blood pressure
d. Absorption of the mineral decreases markedly as intake increases

A

Approximately what percentage of the body's calcium is found in the blood?
a. 1
b. 5
c. 15
d. 25

A

What is hydroxyapatite?
a. Abnormal cellular structures seen in osteoporosis
b. The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
c. A calcium regulatory hormone secreted from the trabeculae region of bone
d. A compound in plant foods that binds to calcium and phosphorus and inhibits absorption

B

As far as is known, which of the following is NOT a process that directly involves calcium?
a. pH regulation
b. Blood clotting
c. Nerve transmission
d. Maintenance of heart beat

A

Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
a. High blood calcium levels correlate with tetany
b. Abnormal dietary calcium intakes promote calcium rigor
c. Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
d. Efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption is similar for children and adults

C

Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
a. Dietary intake of calcium
b. Glucagon and epinephrine
c. Dietary intake of phosphorus
d. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

D

Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?
a. Calcitonin
b. Calmodulin
c. Hydroxyapatite
d. Parathyroid hormone

D

The muscle stiffness that results from abnormally high calcium levels in the blood is termed
a. calcium rigor.
b. calcium tetany.
c. myosinotoxicosis.
d. calmodulin dysfunction.

A

All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract EXCEPT
a. lactose.
b. oxalates.
c. pregnancy.
d. stomach acid.

B

Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
a. Seeds and nuts
b. Processed cheeses
c. Fermented dairy products
d. Spinach and sweet potatoes

D

How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
a. 100
b. 300
c. 600
d. 950

B

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance EXCEPT
a. a high-fiber diet.
b. lactose in the diet.
c. phytic acid in the diet.
d. phosphorus in the diet at a level 3 times that of calcium.

B

Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
a. Fruits
b. Breads
c. Enriched grains
d. Certain green vegetables

D

Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium?
a. Milk
b. Spinach
c. Broccoli
d. Pinto beans

C

At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
a. 30-40 yrs
b. 40-50 yrs
c. 50-60 yrs
d. 60-70 yrs

A

Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?
a. Involved in energy exchange
b. Activates fat-soluble vitamins
c. Ranks lowest among the minerals in amount present in the body
d. Ranks highest among the minerals in amount present in the body

A

Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
a. Rich sources include fresh vegetables
b. Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
c. Absorption is known to be reduced by soft drink consumption
d. Its participation in bone synthesis requires equivalent intake of dietary calcium

B

All of the following characteristics are shared by calcium and magnesium EXCEPT
a. both are involved in blood clotting.
b. both are involved in bone formation.
c. both are found in abundance in dairy products.
d. both may result in tetany when blood levels become abnormally low.

C

Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?
a. Bones
b. Teeth
c. Fatty tissue
d. Cells of soft tissue

A

Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
a. Transport of oxygen
b. Prevention of anemia
c. Catalyst in energy metabolism
d. Production of thyroid hormone

C

Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?
a. The average body contains about 100 g
b. Blood is a major reservoir of the mineral
c. Deficiency is associated with hypertension
d. Dietary intake data are the sum of the amounts from food and water

C

Which of the following is a feature of magnesium in nutrition?
a. Toxicity is common in people taking diuretics
b. High intakes interfere with stability of tooth enamel
c. The amounts present in hard water are poorly utilized
d. Average intakes from food are below recommendations

D

Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made of
a. sulfur.
b. calcium.
c. chloride.
d. magnesium.

A

Which of the following is a function of trabecular bone?
a. Synthesis of vitamin D
b. Synthesis of calcitonin
c. Storage site for calcium
d. Storage site for vitamin D

C

The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?
a. 3 years later
b. 10 years later
c. About the same
d. 4 years earlier

B

After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
a. Sex
b. Tobacco use
c. Calcium intake
d. Physical activity level

A

The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
a. greater kidney retention of calcium.
b. the presence of bioavailable calcium.
c. more stable hydroxyapatite crystal formation.
d. the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals.

D

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