which of the following would be the most likely cause of an iatrogenic disease?
an unwanted effect of a prescribed drug
the best definition of the term prognosis is the
predicted outcome or likelihood of recovery from a specific disease
a change in tissue marked by cells that very in shape and size and show increased myotic figures would be called
a circumstance that causes a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease to occur is termed
which term is used to describe a new and secondary or additional problem that arises after the original disease is established?
pathophysiology involves the study of
functional or structural changes resulting from disease processes
which of the following is the best definition of epidemiology
the science of tracking the occurrence and distribution of diseases
which of the following can cause cell injury or death?
hypoxia, exposure to excessive cold, excessive pressure on tissue, chemical toxins. 1, 2, 3, 4!
all of the following are part of the Seven Steps to Health except:
participate in strenuous exercise on a regular daily basis
the best definition of an ischemia is
a deficit of oxygen supply to the cells, due to circulatory obstruction
all of the following statements are correct about cell damage except
initially cell damage does not change cell metabolism, structure, or function
which of the following conditions distinguishes double-blind studies used in health research?
neither the members of the control group or the experimental group, nor the person administering the treatment know who is receiving the experimental therapy
if the data collected from the research process confirm that the new treatment has increased effectiveness and is safe, this is called
evidence based research
a short-term illness that develops very quickly with perhaps a high fever or severe pain is called
when prolonged ischemia occurs to an area of the heart, the resulting damage is referred to as
during the evaluation process for a new therapy's effectiveness and safety, a double-blind study may be conducted during
the third stage
why are the predisposing factors for a specific disease important to health professionals?
to develop preventative measures
which of the following is usually included in medical history?
past illnesses or surgeries, current illnesses, acute and chronic, prescribed medication or other treatments, nonprescription drugs and herbal remedies, current allergies.
Which of the following is a characteristic of resident or normal flora (microflora)?
Different species inhabit various areas of the body
Opportunistic infection may develop when
a member of resident flora migrates and colonizes a new location in the body
When do clinical signs of infection appear?
When the microbial colony is large enough to damage the host
The principle of Universal Precautions is based on
assuming that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infection
The incubation period refers to the time period between
entry of the pathogen into the body and the first signs of infectious disease
What are culture and sensitivity tests used for?
To identify the causative microbe and the effective antimicrobial agent for it.
The primary pathological effect of influenza virus is
inflammation and necrosis of the upper respiratory epithelium
When an infection or inflammation is suspected, what does leucopenia often indicate?
Which of the following are characteristics of influenza virus?
It is an obligate intracellular parasite, It contains RNA, there are three subtypes - A, B, C. 1, 2, 4
Which of the following manifestations is usually present with influenza but not with the common cold?
generalized skeletal muscle aching, headache, marked fatigue
Which of the following statements applies to Influenza A H1N1?
It contains genetic material from avian, swine, and human viruses
Which of the following does not directly determine the virulence of a microbe?
Capacity for opportunism
Which of the following is a function of interferons? They:
increase host cell resistance to viral invasion
Inflamed tissue is likely to become infected because
capillaries are less permeable in the affected area.
When an infectious disease is occurring globally at a higher rate than usual, it may be designated as a
Which factor provides the basis for grading of newly diagnosed malignant tumors?
Degree of differentiation of the cells
A warning sign of possible cancer would be any of the following EXCEPT:
sudden development of fever, nausea, and diarrhea
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include
obstruction of a tube or duct; cell necrosis and ulceration 1, 3
Which of the following does paraneoplastic syndrome refer to?
The effects of substances such as hormones secreted by the tumor cells
Which term refers to the spread of malignant cells through blood and lymph to distant sites?
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to
determine the best treatment and prognosis
The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are
thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
Chemotherapy usually involves a combination of drugs in order to:
reduce the adverse effects, be effective in more phases of the cell cycle. 1, 3
Why does ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis?
Specific signs rarely appear until after secondary tumors have developed
Select the correct pair representing a malignant tumor and its marker
colon cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen CEA
Antiangiogenesis drugs act on a malignant tumor by
reducing blood flow and nutrient supply to tumor cells
The development of neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer means
the patient is at high risk for infection
Glucocorticoids are often prescribed during a course of chemotherapy and radiation because
inflammation around the tumor may be reduced
Vomiting frequently follows a chemotherapy treatment because
the gastrointestinal tract is irritated and the chemicals stimulate the emetic center. A, b
What type of normal cells are often damaged during chemotherapy and radiation treatments?
All of the following are correct statements about skin cancers except
they are difficult to diagnose and treat. Not true!
A classification process that applies to a specific malignant tumor and describes the extent of the disease at a given time is called:
Benign tumors can often be differentiated from malignant tumors because benign tumors:
are encapsulated and slow-growing