Chapter 16

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A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV in order to _____ various psychological disorders.

identify

Compulsions are best described as:

repetitive behaviors.

Hallucinations and delusions are most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from:

schizophrenia.

Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering form:

schizophrenia.

The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sickness is known as the:

medical model.

A post-traumatic stress disorder is considered to be a(n) _____ disorder.

anxiety.

Mania is most likely to be associated with a(n):

bipolar disorder.

Indira, a third-grade teacher, frequently suffers from dizziness, heart palpitations, muscular tension, and fatigue. She is also continually agitated and unable to relax outside the classroom, but she cannot pinpoint a reason for her problems. Her behavior is most indicative of a(n):

generalized anxiety disorder.

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by:

a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of:

an obsession.

For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from:

major depressive disorder.

Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from a(n):

phobia.

Dopamine overacitivity appears to be most clearly related to:

hallucinations.

An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by:

a lack of guilt feelings.

Anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several elderly people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of:

a personality disorder.

A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ____ perspective.

learning.

The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by:

a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

Evidence that symptoms of dissociative identity disorder are triggered by the suggestions and leading questions of therapists most clearly points out the importance of _____ in the onset of this disorder.

role-playing.

Those with a narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with:

their own self-importance.

False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called:

delusions.

A schizoid personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by:

a detachment from social relationships.

Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder?

bipolar disorder.

After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the:

biasing power of diagnostic tools.

A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a _____ perspective.

social-cognitive

Learned helplessness is most closely associated with:

depression.

Because it is so pervasive, _____ is often considered "the common cold" of psychological disorders.

depression.

After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with his life, Mark has suddenly become extremely cheerful and so talkative he can't be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Mark's behavior is indicative of:

bipolar disorder.

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of:

optimism.

Several weeks after being fired from a job he had held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recognize his wife. Landon's experience is most indicative of:

dissociative disorder.

Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?

social-cognitive.

Seeing one-eyed monsters would be a(n) _____. Believing that you are Christopher Columbus would be a _____.

hallucination; delusion

Although it has been two years since his girlfriend left him, Joaquin still suffers from depression. His therapist believes that Joaquin remains depressed because the girlfriend reminded him of his mother, who died when he was a child. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects the _____ perspective.

psychoanalytic

Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of _____ disorders.

dissociative

Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. She most likely suffers from:

catatonia.

Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with:

depression.

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