Germans who migrated from Europe to Pennsylvania fleeing religious persecution, as they were primarily Lutheran. "Dutch" was a corruption of "Deutsch"
They settle based on religions, and they name their towns the same name as the town they came from
someone who farms only for themselves, not selling crops to other people OR a person who improves the land (dirt) to sell to WASPs then move away
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
disease of plants caused by a fungus; responsible for the great Irish famine of the 1800s; potatos were infected by the Phytophthora infestans, causing them to rot in the fields.
Gottfried Duden (1829)
o German American Immigrant, and wrote a pamphlet about how great America is, andhow they need to come, it is like the new Germany
o Promotes land in the Mid West (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois area)
• No WASPs, bountiful land, not only cheap but "free"
o Railroads/ Land
• Give land to railroad companies to build this railroad, and the companies give away the land for free so the railroad has somewhere to transport people and goods to
• Germans get that land for free, they had the money to get out there
upper class pushed out of germany for political reasons favored revolution. , Liberal German refugees who fled failed democratic revolutions and came to America
Area between Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis. Very populous area of German immigrants
Lower East Side, NYC
Lower class Germans settle here, this is exactly where the Chinese and Italians are
Beer and Pianos
Two things Germans were pro at making. , Germans best skills, which they brough to America (Steinway pianos, Anheiser + Busch). Beer endeared everyone in US (WASP's and other minorities) to Germans
• Trying to keep their culture without doing so through religion, so they can keep their good reputation
• A way to acculturate
Schools associated with a church, usually Roman Catholic. The funding of these schools became a major political issue in the 1850s.
• BY 1900 there are 900 German language newspapers, mostly in the Mid-West
• Reports on what is happening in Germany as well as locally
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
"Pumped Up Patriotism"
US doesn't like Germans anymore; stop buying beer and pianos, burn their parochial schools and stop being nice to them
Alien Enemies Act of 1798
we can deport whoever we want, could even send a german american back to germany even if they aren't from there
Hyper - Assimilation
• "100% Americanism"
• Speaking English all the time
• Changing their names
• Change their product names
o Budweiser becomes "Bud"
The idea that American views are put ahead of all other views regaurdless of homeland.
The Alien Registration Act of 1940
• Germans had to go and prove where they live, family members, etc., and received an Alien Enemy Registration Card
• 300,000 Germans