Exam 1 Final AP

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In a negative feedback mechanism

The response of the effector is to depress or end the original stiumulus

Wally was sweating profusely as he ran the 10K race. The sweat glands producing the sweat would be considered which part of the feedback system?

Effectors

All of the following are examples of the four major elements contributing to body mass (Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen) NOT:

Sodium

The subatomic particles responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are:

Electrons

Molecules formed when electrons are shared unequally are

Polar

In which mixture would you expect to find hydrogen bonds?

Sugar in water

HCl + NaOH -. NaCl +H20 is an example of an __________ reaction

Exchange

What lipid type is the foundation of the cell membrane?

Phospholipids

When a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms the bond formed is called a

Covalent Bond

Biochemical tests show a cell with replicated DNA, but incomplete synthesis of proteins needed for cell division. In what stage of the cell cycle is the cell most likely to be?

S

A cell stimulated to increase steroid production will have abundant:

Smooth ER

Cyanide binds to at least one molecule that is involved with ATP synthesis. In cells exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide would be found in:

Mitochondria

Which of the following would you expect to find in or on cells whose main function is absorption?

Cilia

Which of the following molecules is an inorganic molecule?

Potassium Chloride

Which contains nitrogen?

Proteins

Triglycerides are composed of

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

After the A&P exam, Walter drank a six-pack of beer and had to make several trips to the bathroom. The increase in urination reflects an increase in what process occuring in the kidneys?

Filtration

The process in which a sampling of particulate matter is engulfed and brought into the cell is called

Phagocytosis

The RNA species that carries the coded message, specifiying the sequence of amino acids in the protein to be made, from the nucleus to cytoplasm is

mRNA

Which of the following modes of transfer across a cell membrane is active?

Solute Pumping

Which of the following collections of similar cells are integrated together for a common function?

Tissues

Storage for nutrients, waste and cell products within the cytoplasm

Inclusions

The organ responsible for maintaining pH for proper homeostasis in the body

Kidney

An acidic solution has

More hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions

Which of the following are organic compounds? Pick all that apply: Carbon Dioxide, H20, fats, Oxygen, Glucose, Enzymes, KCl, DNA?

Fats, Glucose, Enzymes, DNA

Translation occurs when

tRNA couples with specific amino acids

An endocrine cell able to synthesize but not secrete protein hormones might have a malfunctioning

Golgi Aparatus

If a cell were poisoned with a substance that prevented the synthesis of ATP and the function of the Sodium-Potassium Pump, which ion would start to increase in concentration within the cell?

Sodium

What is the role of a ribosome?

It holds mRNA and tRNA in place during protein synthesis

The term used to describe the type of solution in which cells will lose their water to their environment is

hypertonic

Which molecule is most polar?

water (H-O-H)

The enzyme that catalyzses the degradation of lactose is a

protein

The end product of dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate is

monosaccharides become joined together to form a disaccharide

Fluid moves out of capillaries by filtration. If the plasma glucose concentraion is 100mg/dl, what will be the concentration of the glucose in the filtered field?

100 mg/dl

A cell with abundant preoxisomes would most likely be involved in

detoxification activities

Consider the following: A DNA segment has this nucleotide sequence: AAGCTCTTACGAATATTC. Which mRNA matches or is complementary?

TTCGAGAATGCTTATAAG

Consider the following: A DNA segment has this nucleotide sequence: AAGCTCTTACGAATATTC. How many amino acids are coded in this segment?

6

The arbor vitae refers to

cerebellar white matter

Spinocerebellar tracts

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of the meninges?

arachnoid and pia

The white matter of the spinal cord contains

myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers

Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei?

initiating protective reflex actions

An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in

paraplegia

An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the

visual association area

The blood-brain barrier is effective against

metabolic waste such as urea

Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?

procedural

Which statement about coma is true?

Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time

Second-order neurons of both specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the

thalamus

Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?

baroreceptor

The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the

tibial nerve

Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are

involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior

Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the

ulnar nerve

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are

afferent nerves

Bell's palsy is

characterized by paralysis of facial muscles

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?

trigeminal

The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?

musculocutaneous

A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?

olfactory

A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?

facial

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the

absolute refractory period

Which of the following is NOT a special characteristic of neurons?

they are mitotic

Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?

innervation of skeletal muscle

The term "central nervous system" refers to the

brain and spinal cord

A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called an

association neuron

Which of the following is not a chemical class of neurotransmitters?

nucleic acid

Which of the following is false or incorrect?

A nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory and inhibitory factors are equal

Ependymal cells

help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?

potassium

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with

hyperpolarization

A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until

the membrane potential has been reestablished.

In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is

negatively charged and contains less sodium

Select the correct statement about serial processing.

Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing

Which of the following's structure is not part of the central nervous system?

The radial nerve

Assume that an EPSP is being generated on the dendritic membrane. Which will occur?

a single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of Na+ and K+

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by poisoning blocks neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction because

ACh is blocked from attaching to the postsynaptic ACh receptors

The anatomical region of a multipolar neuron that has the lowest threshold for generating an AP is the

axon hillock

Which of the following is NOT a major descending motor pathway?

spinocellular tract

Which of the following tracts controls balance during standing and moving?

vestibulospinal tract

Fiber tracts that allow neurons within the same cerebral hemisphere to communicate are

association tracts

A professor unexpectedly threw Susan's A&P book on the floor during A&P class. The students looked up, startled. The reflexive movements of their eyes were mediated by the

inferior colliculi

Victims of Polio will experience loss of certain somatic reflexes and eventually paralysis. The virus attacks and destroys which horn of the spinal cord?

ventral motor

Dorsal Root Ganglion contain

cell bodies of sensory neurons

A reflex that causes reciprocal activiation of the antagonist muscle is the

Golgi tendon

A sole motor nerve that supplies the diaphragm is the

phrenic

The sciatic nerve is composed of the following two nerves in a common sheath:

tibial and common fibular

What is the unique origin site of parasympathetic fibers?

The brain and sacral spinal cord

Which of the following are high-amplitude waves seen during deep sleep and when the RAS is damped? In awake adults, they indicate brain damage.

delta

What is the region of the insula just deep to the temporal lobe responsible for?

gustatory

The pineal gland which secretes melatonin is located in what region of the brain?

epithalamus

What region of the brain recognizes and predicts sequences of events so that it may adjust for multiple forces exerted on a limb during complex movements involving several joints. This activity occurs subconsciously.

left cerebral hemisphere

What is the central core of the fore brain which consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus?

diencephalon

This area is called the "executive suite" of the nervous system, where our conscious mind is found.

cerebral cortex

Which A&P I students are the best study group ever?

Gretchen, Ashley, Walter, Kelly

Which of the following is not controlled by the unique role of the sympathetic division?

GI tract

Which cranial nerve effects the heart, lungs, and mose of the visceral organs?

X (vagus nerve)

Which of the following drug type will reduce heart rate and prevent arrhythmias?

Beta-blockers

The opthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular are all branches of which cranial nerve?

Trigeminal

Areas of the skin innervated by a single spinal except C1 are called

dermatomes

All of the following are part of the limbic system except

reticular formation

Which of the following structures convert new information into long-term memories?

hippocampus

Put the phases of the Action Potential in the sequence they occur.

C, A, D, B Resting State (-70mV), Depolarization, Repolarization, Hyperpolarization

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