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energy balance

The state in which energy intake, in the form of food and beverages, matches the energy expended, primarily through basal metabolism and physical activity.

positive energy balance

The state in which energy intake is great than energy expended, generally resulting in weight gain.

negative energy balance

The state in which energy intake is less than energy expended, resulting in weight loss.

bomb calorimeter

An instrument used to determine the calorie content of a food.

basal metabolism

The minimal amount of calories the body uses to support itself in a fasting state when resting and awake in a warm quiet environment.

resting metabolism

The amount of calories the body uses when the person has not eaten in 4 hours and is resting and awake in a warm quiet environment.

lean body mass

Body weight minus fat storage weight equals lean body mass. The includes organs such as the brain, muscles, and liver, as well as bone and blood and other body fluids.

thermic effect of food

The increase in metabolism that occurs during the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of energy yielding nutrients. (5-10% of calories consumed)

thermogenesis

This term encompasses the ability of humans to regulate body temperature within narrow limits (thermoregulation). Examples are fidgeting and shivering when cold.

brown adipose tissue

A specialized form of adipose tissue that produces large amounts of heat by metabolizing energy yielding nutrients without synthesizing much useful energy for the body. The unused energy is released as heat.

direct calorimetry

A method of determining a body's energy use by measuring heat released from the body. An insulated chamber is usually used.

indirect calorimetry

A method to measure energy use by the body by measuring oxygen uptake. Formulas are then used to convert this gas exchange value into energy use.

body mass index

Weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; a value of 25 and above indicates overweight and a value of 30 and above indicates obesity.

underweight weighing

A method of estimating total body fat by weighing the individual on a standard scale and then weighting him or her again submerged in water. The difference between the two weights is used to estimate total body volume.

air displacement

A method for estimating boy composition that makes use of the volume of space taken up by a body inside a small chamber.

bioelectrical impedance

The method to estimate total body fat that uses a low energy electrical current. The more fat storage a person has, the more impedance (resistance) to electrical flow will be exhibited.

dual energy xray absorptiometry

A highly accurate method of measuring body composition and bone mass and density using multiple low energy xrays.

upper body obesity

The type of obesity in which fat is stored primarily in the abdominal area; Closely associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. (Android obesity)

lower body obesity

The type of obesity in which fat storage is primarily located in the buttocks and thigh area. (gynoid obesity)

set point

Often refers to the close regulation of body weight. It is not known what cells control this set point or how it functions in weight regulation. There is evidence, however, that mechanisms exist that help regulate weight.

food insecurity

A condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food.

chain breaking

Breaking the link between two or more behaviors that encourage overeating such as snacking while watching television.

stimulus control

Altering the environment to minimize the stimuli for eating for example removing foods from sight and storing them in kitchen cabinets.

cognitive restructuring

Changing one's frame of mind regarding eating. (Being effective with coping rather than emotional eating)

contingency management

Forming a plan of action to respond to a situation in which overeating is likely.

self monitoring

Tracking foods eaten and conditions affecting eating

relapsing prevention

A series of strategies used to help prevent and cope with weight control relapses.

amphetamine

A group of medications that induce stimulation of the central nervous system and have other effects in the body.

very low calorie diet

This diet allows a person 400 to 800 calories per day often in liquid form. It is also known as protein sparing modified fast or a liquid diet.

bariatrics

The medical specialty focusing on the treatment of obesity.

adjustment gastric banding

A restrictive procedure in which the opening from the esophagus to the stomach is reduced by a hollow gastric band.

gastroplasty

Gastric bypass surgery performed on the stomach to limit its volume to 30 ml. (Stomach stapling)

underweight

A body mass index below 18.5. The cutoff is less precise than for obesity because this condition has been less studied.

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