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Which one of these chordate groups lacks a post-anal tail and a notochord as adults?lancelets
tunicates
amphibians
mammals
reptiles

tunicates

The common ancestor of all these chordate groups EXCEPT the _____ probably had paired appendages.
mammals
amphibians
lampreys
ray-finned fishes
reptiles

lampreys

Which of these is the only chordate group that has hair?
tunicates
ray-finned fishes
mammals
amphibians
sharks, rays, and chimaeras

mammals

Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?
All deuterostomes have a coelom.
All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.
All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers.
All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.

All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.

Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?
Exoskeleton
Amniotic egg
Bone
Jaws

Exoskeleton

True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.
True
False

False

Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?
Their ability to move
The presence of an endoskeleton
Their habitat
Their body plan

Their body plan

Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?
The development of more efficient surfaces for gas exchange in reptiles stimulated expansion into terrestrial habitats.
All vertebrates have jaws with which to catch their prey.
The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.
Birds are more related to mammals than to dinosaurs.

The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water

Which characteristics define a chordate?
The presence of four specific morphological traits
The development of an anus from the blastopore
The presence of a well-developed circulatory system
The ability to live on land

The presence of four specific morphological traits

Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?
Pharyngeal gill slit
Dorsal nerve cord
Notochord
Endoskeleton

Pharyngeal gill slit

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.
habitat
presence or absence of hair
method of locomotion
method of reproduction
size

method of reproduction

Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in
marsupials.
birds.
placentals.
monotremes.
Three of the options listed are correct

Three of the options listed are correct.

Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain reptilian jawbones?
The mammalian jaw has fewer bones than does the reptilian jaw.
These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.
They are similar in size to the reptilian jawbones.
They are similar in shape to the reptilian jawbones.
Mammals can hear better than reptiles

These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.

Which of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?
Look for the presence of milk-producing glands.
Because mammals are eutherians, look for evidence of a placenta.
Examine the teeth.
Look for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin.

Examine the teeth

Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
include only insectivores and herbivores.
have some embryonic development outside the uterus.
lay eggs.
are found in Australia and Africa.
lack nipples

have some embryonic development outside the uterus.

Identify the correct statement(s) about animal classification.
Reptiles can be defined as ectothermic amniotes.
Animals have a cranium, fur, and mammary glands.
Craniates have a head and neural crest cells

Craniates have a head and neural crest cells

Which of the following represents the strongest evidence that two of the three middle ear bones of mammals are homologous to certain reptilian jawbones?
The mammalian jaw has fewer bones than does the reptilian jaw.
They are similar in shape to the reptilian jawbones.
Mammals can hear better than reptiles.
These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos.
They are similar in size to the reptilian jawbones

These bones can be observed to move from the developing jaw to the developing middle ear in mammalian embryos

Female birds lay their eggs, thereby facilitating flight by reducing weight. Which "strategy" seems most likely for female bats to use to achieve the same goal?
feed multiple embryos internally using placentas
give birth to underdeveloped young, and subsequently carry them in a pouch that has teats
refrain from flying throughout pregnancy (about 6 weeks long)
limit litters to a single embryo
lay shelled eggs

limit litters to a single embryo

In the United States and Canada, bats use one of two strategies to survive winter: They either migrate south, or they hibernate. Recently, those that hibernate seem to have come under attack by a fungus, Geomyces destructans (Gd), an attack that is occurring from Missouri to southern Canada. Many infected bats have a delicate, white filamentous mat on their muzzles, which is referred to as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The fungus invades the bat tissues, causes discomfort, and awakens the bat from its hibernation. The bat fidgets and wastes calories, using up its stored fat. The bat then behaves abnormally, leaving its cave during daytime in winter to search for food. Their food, primarily insects, is scarce during the winter, and the bats ultimately starve to death. Since 2007, it is estimated that up to 1 million bats have perished from WNS.
Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?

hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave
southward migration during the winter
much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation

much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation

In the United States and Canada, bats use one of two strategies to survive winter: They either migrate south, or they hibernate. Recently, those that hibernate seem to have come under attack by a fungus, Geomyces destructans (Gd), an attack that is occurring from Missouri to southern Canada. Many infected bats have a delicate, white filamentous mat on their muzzles, which is referred to as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The fungus invades the bat tissues, causes discomfort, and awakens the bat from its hibernation. The bat fidgets and wastes calories, using up its stored fat. The bat then behaves abnormally, leaving its cave during daytime in winter to search for food. Their food, primarily insects, is scarce during the winter, and the bats ultimately starve to death. Since 2007, it is estimated that up to 1 million bats have perished from WNS.
Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?

Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of abnormal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
searching for food during the day
shifting roosting location to the mouth of the cave during winter
searching for food during winter
All three of the options listed are correct.
Only two of the options listed are correct

All three of the options listed are correct

In the United States and Canada, bats use one of two strategies to survive winter: They either migrate south, or they hibernate. Recently, those that hibernate seem to have come under attack by a fungus, Geomyces destructans (Gd), an attack that is occurring from Missouri to southern Canada. Many infected bats have a delicate, white filamentous mat on their muzzles, which is referred to as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The fungus invades the bat tissues, causes discomfort, and awakens the bat from its hibernation. The bat fidgets and wastes calories, using up its stored fat. The bat then behaves abnormally, leaving its cave during daytime in winter to search for food. Their food, primarily insects, is scarce during the winter, and the bats ultimately starve to death. Since 2007, it is estimated that up to 1 million bats have perished from WNS.
Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the growth of this fungus?
Gd is a cold-loving fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behavior can be most expected to favor the spread of this fungus to uninfected bats?

communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation
hibernating in parts of the cave that are farthest away from the mouth of the cave
reliance on fat reserves for calories during hibernation
southward migration during the winter
much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation

communal roosting in tightly packed clusters during hibernation

Which feature(s) allow(s) hibernating bats to conserve heat without using calories?
fat layer below the skin
shivering
fur
All three of the options listed are correct.
Two of the options listed are correct.

Two of the options listed are correct.

Among mammals, it is generally true that
the esophagus is a key source of digestive enzymes.
the trachea leads to the esophagus and then to the stomach.
the epiglottis prevents swallowed food from entering the trachea.
after leaving the oral cavity, the bolus enters the larynx.
all types of foods begin their enzymatic digestion in the mouth.

the epiglottis prevents swallowed food from entering the trachea.

Different types of food are eaten by various groups of animals, but it is usually true that _____.
the intestines of carnivores tend to be longer than the intestines of herbivores of similar overall body size
animals typically produce enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose
the teeth of herbivores tend to be sharper than the teeth of carnivores
many carnivorous vertebrates house large populations of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in their stomachs
cellulose digestion in ruminant mammals occurs before the ingested foods reach the small intestine

cellulose digestion in ruminant mammals occurs before the ingested foods reach the small intestine

The molar teeth of herbivorous mammals are especially effective at
ripping.
cutting.
piercing.
splitting.
grinding.

grinding.

A group of animals among which a relatively long cecum is likely to be found is the
omnivores.
herbivores.
carnivores.
heterotrophs.
autotrophs.

herbivores.

The adaptations suited to a carnivorous diet include
amylase.
broad, flat molars.
a rumen.
bile salts.
ingestion of feces

bile salts.

Cattle are able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material because
they are autotrophic.
cattle, like rabbits, re-ingest their feces.
cattle saliva has enzymes capable of digesting cellulose.
they have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs.
they manufacture all 15 amino acids out of sugars in the liver.

they have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs

Analysis of jawbones from the skeletal remains of a vertebrate animal reveal its dietary patterns owing to
the prevalence of specific kinds of teeth.
the size of the mouth opening.
the evidence of food molecules still present.
whether the mouth is the most anterior structure.
the position of muscle attachment sites

the prevalence of specific kinds of teeth.

An enlarged cecum is typical of
carnivorous animals.
rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears.
tapeworms and other intestinal parasites.
tubeworms that digest via symbionts.
humans and other primates.

rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears.

Coprophagy, the nutrition-boosting ingestion of fecal material, is important for the nutritional balance of
very large animals, such as elephants.
rabbits and their relatives.
insects and arthropods.
ruminants such as cows.
squirrels and some rodents.

rabbits and their relatives.

Which of the following statements about hominin evolution is correct? As hominins have evolved, _____.
sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced
the foramen magnum has shifted farther back on the skull
jaw size has increased
they have developed longer fingers
canine teeth have increased in size

sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced

Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
1. apes
2. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
5. primates

5, 4, 1, 2, 3
5, 2, 1, 4, 3
5, 1, 4, 2, 3
5, 4, 2, 1, 3
5, 2, 4, 1, 3

5, 4, 1, 2, 3

Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?
enhanced depth perception
repositioning of foramen magnum
opposable big toe
shortened hind limbs
fingerprints

repositioning of foramen magnum

Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?
Human evolution has occurred within an unbranched lineage.
At most times during hominin evolution, more than one species of hominin have existed concurrently
Human ancestors were virtually identical to extant chimpanzees.
The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved simultaneously.
Fossil evidence indicates that tool use preceded bipedalism in the hominin lineage.

At most times during hominin evolution, more than one species of hominin have existed concurrently

Which of the following are considered apes?
orangutans
lorises
Old World monkeys
tarsiers
New World monkeys

orangutans

Which of these species was the first to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism?
H. erectus
H. ergaster
H. sapiens
H. habilis
Australopithecus garhi

H. ergaster

Which of these species was apparently the first to craft stone tools?
H. habilis
H. sapiens
H. erectus
H. ergaster
Australopithecus garhi

Australopithecus garhi

Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa?
H. habilis
H. ergaster
Australopithecus garhi
H. sapiens
H. erectus

H. erectus

Which of these species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time and places) with H. neanderthalensis?
H. erectus
H. ergaster
H. sapiens
H. habilis

H. sapiens

Which of these species had members who moved out of Africa?
H. habilis
H. erectus
H. ergaster
H. sapiens
both H. sapiens and H. erectus

both H. sapiens and H. erectus

Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?
The evolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneously.
The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpanzees.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that modern humans are genetically very similar to Neanderthals.
Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.
Human evolution has proceeded in an orderly fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.

Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.

The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about
195,000 years ago.
1.6 million years ago.
6 million years ago.
16,000 years ago.
60,000 years ago

195,000 years ago.

Which of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus?
On average, H. erectus had a smaller brain than H. habilis.
H. erectus evolved before H. habilis.
H. erectus had a level of sexual dimorphism less than that of modern humans.
H. erectus was not known to use tools.
Their fossils are not limited to Africa.

Their fossils are not limited to Africa.

Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
hominins
Homo
hominoids
anthropoids
primates

hominins

Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
apes
anthropoids
primates
Homo
hominins

anthropoids

Which of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?
primates
Homo
anthropoids
apes
hominins

anthropoids

With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
Humans and other apes are the result of disruptive selection in a species of chimpanzee.
Humans evolved from chimpanzees.
Humans evolved directly from Old World monkeys.
Humans and other apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
Humans represent the pinnacle of evolution and have escaped from being affected by natural selection.

Humans and other apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.

Which of the following chordate groups include(s) humans?
Amniotes
Hominins
Gnathostomes

Amniotes
Hominins
Gnathostomes

Which of the following statements describing hominin evolution is/are correct
The first hominin species evolved from chimpanzees.
Hominin species began to walk on two legs in order to free their hands to use tools.
Homo sapiens is the only surviving member of a highly branched evolutionary tree of hominin species.

Homo sapiens is the only surviving member of a highly branched evolutionary tree of hominin species.

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