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A case study is an investigation of

one person or group over a specific period of time.

Jigsaw, an early format for cooperative learning, emphasizes what relationship among group members?

high independence

Sociological constructivists are concerned primarily with how

public knowledge is created.

Using instructional conversations as a teaching tool is designed to provide a means for
Answer

grappling with problems in students' zones of proximal development and providing scaffolding.

In their writing group, Aron has become the expert on how to write an introductory sentence. When students teach other students about the part in which they have expertise, they are engaged in what type of cooperative learning structure?

jigsaw

Ms. French would like to have her students, while experimenting with their own structured materials, discover some key principles of gravity. Which one of the following teaching methods should be most appropriate for this purpose?

inquiry

Research on acceleration for bright children suggests that acceleration is generally

beneficial for these children at all age/grade levels.

According to the law No Child Left Behind

states have some say in defining "proficiency" for students

Vygotsky's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism?

Both externally and internally directed

Random assignments would be most critical in what type of research?

experimental

Piaget's basic blocks of thinking and memory are

schemas

You are given a math problem to solve. As you try to remember the formula involved, what memory system is being searched?

long-term semantic

Generally, students are not ready to study the rules of a language formally until about age five. This is when most students have started to gain

metalinguistic awareness

Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test?

In an educational psychology classroom

Propositional networks are defined most accurately as

the organization of information according to its meaning.

A script is viewed by cognitive theorists as useful

in directing everyday activities in different situations.

What part of the brain coordinates and orchestrates skilled movements?

Cerebellum

Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves

integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding.

As with most developmental crises, the resolution of the identity crisis

may be an extended process

A recent study that followed 761 middle-class students from first grade through high school discovered the following about diversity and self-esteem:

There are major differences between boys and girls in all subject areas

A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)

algorithm

The tendency to respond in the most familiar or rigid way is a response set

True

Which one of the following students BEST illustrates the state of functional fixedness?

Nathaniel, a student who is using a ruler for drawing lines, fails to realize that he can use its metal edge as a scraper to remove paint from his desk.

Cheryl gets good grades in her language class but uses incorrect grammar and punctuation in her written work in other classes. This situation suggests a problem with

transfer

Jennifer had her stomach pumped after she ingested part of an unknown compound in chemistry class. "But at home we always taste things to find out whether they're sugar or salt," she said. Jennifer is a victim of

negative transfer

Michael was asked to devise as many uses for a brick as he could. After taking the assignment home to work on further, he came up with over 30 ideas, many of which were not proposed by any other student. All of Michael's ideas dealt with using a brick to break things. In what aspect of creativity proposed by Torrence is Michael lacking?

flexibility

Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of a heuristic?

analogical thinking

Current beliefs about problem-solving techniques suggest that domain-specific strategies are

likely to be used increasingly as experience with a particular subject increases

The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of

a heuristic`

Ms. Cricket gave a creative writing assignment on today's film. She allows 10 minutes today and 10 minutes tomorrow to work on it. What component of the creative process is she fostering?

Restructuring

Whenever Matt appears to be having difficulty in completing his science laboratory work, Ms. Butterfield quickly offers to help him and encourages him to continue working. According to Graham (1991), Ms. Butterfield's behavior is likely to result in Matt developing

doubts about his ability

As reported by Woolfolk, the debilitating effects of anxiety are viewed to be due to

attention being diverted from the learning task to a preoccupation with one's feelings.

From the pioneering work of Yerkes and Dodson (1905) to present-day research results, what is the correlation between virtually every aspect of achievement and a wide variety of anxiety measures?

Negative

Which one of the following statements is the most accurate definition of motivation?

An inner state that arouses, directs, and maintains a person's behavior

The concept of self-determination is an important influence in what view of motivation?

humanistic

Being interested in a task because the activity is enjoyable is what type of motivation?

intrinsic

Which one of the following quotes exemplifies a learning or mastery goal?

"Accomplishing this should make me better prepared for Biology 101."

Learning and information processing are influenced by reasoning and problem solving as well as by

emotions

In Maslow's hierarchy, self-esteem is considered to be what type of need?

deficiency

Pride or shame for one's own actions is likely to be felt most strongly by those who attribute their actions to

internal causes

Which one of the following student outcomes is MOST likely to be the result of a criterion-referenced assessment tool?

Ben answered 10 out of 12 questions correctly

With regard to the practice of retaining or "holding back" students with failing grades, Woolfolk's general recommendation is that

students should be promoted with their peers but provided with extra help in the summer or the next year

All of the following statements are true of essay tests EXCEPT:

Students should be able to answer the questions in a few words for the sake of efficiency.

The most important use of essay tests is to

measure complex learning outcomes.

A teacher who is interested in finding out how well a student is doing in class compared to students in other schools should use what type of test?

norm-referenced

Starch and Elliot's classic 1912 experiments dealing with the extent of teachers' personal values and biases in scoring essay tests demonstrated what measurement issue that still plagues essay scoring today?

reliability

Molly is preparing to take a standardized test that will be used by administrators to evaluate the type of school placement she should have. What type of assessment is Molly involved in?

High-stakes testing

Which one of the following procedures best reflects performance assessment?

Making a class presentation that utilizes more than one medium to demonstrate the steps to follow in designing a specific communication

Identify the type of objective test item that is most appropriate for measuring the following specific learning outcome: "Select the best reason for a specific action from a given list of alternatives."

Multiple-choice

What score-reporting method decreases competition among students by representing the widest range of raw scores?

Stanines

A consequence is defined by Skinner as a reinforcer or a punisher depending on whether it

increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows

Which one of the following quotes is an example of high self-efficacy?

"I am usually good at math, so I will do well in this class."

According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal causality?

Personal factors

Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be

varied in price so that all students may be rewarded.

Ms. Johnson's sixth graders complained about diagramming sentences, and they were able convince her to show a movie first. Ms. Johnson made the common error of

using a reinforcer before a low-frequency behavior.

Lionel was humiliated when he forgot his lines in a play. Now he refuses to take part in any function of the speech class. Based on the behavioral principles discussed by Woolfolk, the best strategy for Lionel's teacher would be to

bring Lionel back into class participation in small steps

A photographer shoots a flashbulb directly into your eyes. For the next few seconds, all you can see are big blue dots everywhere you look. What type of memory is most directly involved in this phenomenon?

sensory

Maria has excellent study habits. She seems to know just what to review and how long to spend on each part of every course. Maria is applying what type of knowledge?

conditional

Behavioral theories of learning emphasize

observable actions

Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that students can learn from observing others complete a task?

social cognitive theory

Research on bilingualism suggests that

the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the faster he/she will learn a second language

The purposes of creating culturally compatible classrooms are to lessen ethnic prejudice, racism, and sexism and, at the same time, provide equal opportunities for all students

true

Differences in cultural values as well as the dangers of neighborhoods may make the strategy of less parental control both appropriate and useful for children's learning.

false

Which one of the following students BEST illustrates the concept of learned helplessness as an explanation for failure by low socioeconomic status children?

Michael decides that he has no chance of passing the seventh grade or getting out of school.

In a study of the effects of a negative stereotype on college students' standardized test performances, similar results were found for both African-American and Caucasian students.

false

The rules and traditions that guide the behavior of a group comprise its

culture

David knows exactly when he should take part in a certain classroom activity. David has an understanding of the classroom's participation structures.

true

One way of inoculating students against stereotype threats is to

believe that intelligence can be improved.

According to Woolfolk, results from learning styles research are generally considered highly valid for adapting instruction to culturally diverse groups.

false

Nikolas is an eleventh grader who came to America from Russia with his parents one year ago. He has gradually developed his fluency in the English language, but he continues to have some difficulty using English during classroom activities. What should Nikolas' teacher do to help him with his English language acquisition?

Promote Nikolas' bilingualism in both Russian and English.

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