How do children develop special attachments to their mothers according to John Bowlby?
a) the mother provides innate contact comfort to the infant
b) the infant is biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers a protective response from adult females
c) the mother becomes a conditioned reinforcer because she is associated with the reinforcing act of being fed
d) maternal attachment behavior is the result of reproductive fitness
Adolescents in modern, western cultures reach puberty at _________ ages than their peers in developing countries.
c) much older
Research has supported the finding that, compared to males, females tend to be
a) more sensitive to subtle, nonverbal cues.
b) more irrational.
c) more emotional.
d) more assertive.
Which of the following age groups can be categorized as part of emerging adulthood?
Amy has just finished college. She feels optimistic about her future and thinks that she could travel anywhere and do anything. According to Arnett, what stage of life is Amy in?
a) identity versus confusion
b) emerging adulthood
c) late adulthood
One of the criticisms of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is that
a) Piaget may have overestimated the cognitive skills of infants and preschool children.
b) Piaget may have underestimated the influence of cultural factors on cognitive development.
c) the theory focuses too much on individual differences in development.
d) evidence for the theory is based on cross-sectional research.
Assume research shows there is a gender difference on Trait X and males tend to exhibit more of the trait than females. If the gender difference on Trait X is similar to other traits with gender differences, which of the following conclusions would BEST describe performance on Trait X?
a) a few females exhibit very low levels of the trait
b) a few males exhibit very high levels of the trait
c) most males exhibit higher levels of the trait than most females
d) the average male exhibits slightly higher levels of the trait than the average female
The elementary school-age child who does well in school and who receives praise and support at home will develop what Erikson calls a sense of
The principle of ____ suggests that physical properties of substances, such as volume, number, and mass, remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
a) object permanence
Mercedes takes her one-year-old son, Justice, to visit a day-care center where she plans to enroll him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. Mercedes exhibits
a) an avoidant attachment.
b) an anxious-ambivalent attachment.
c) a secure attachment.
d) a lack of attachment.
The fact that children in different cultures ____ in the age at which basic motor skills appear demonstrates that ____.
a) vary somewhat; genetic factors can slow or accelerate early motor development
b) vary somewhat; environmental factors can slow or accelerate early motor development
c) do not vary; genetic factors alone determine early motor development
d) do not vary; environmental factors alone determine early motor development
Which of the following is MOST likely to decline in the later years?
a) intellectual accomplishment
b) procedural memory
c) problem-solving ability
d) speed in processing information
Which of the following does NOT occur during the final three months of prenatal development?
a) respiratory and digestive systems mature
b) sex organs start to develop
c) brain cells multiply at a rapid rate
d) a layer of fat is deposited under the skin
In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis during adolescence is
a) identity versus confusion.
b) generativity versus self-absorption.
c) industry versus inferiority.
d) intimacy versus isolation.
The finding that environmental factors are most likely to cause damage to specific structures of a developing embryo or fetus when those structures are undergoing rapid development BEST reflects the unifying theme in psychology that
a) psychology is theoretically diverse.
b) psychology is empirical.
c) heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
d) psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
Erik Erikson's developmental stages are organized around potential turning points called
a) fixation points.
b) psychosocial crises.
c) developmental tasks.
d) psychosexual crises.
The MOST common category of attachment formed by infants in the United States is the
a) secure attachment.
b) insecure attachment.
c) avoidant attachment.
d) anxious-ambivalent attachment
Which of the following is NOT one of Kohlberg's levels of moral development?
The inability of a child to mentally "undo" something is referred to as
b) object permanence.
When Matthew saw his older brother's bicycle fall off its kick stand, Matthew told his brother that the bicycle must be tired from being ridden too much. Matthew's statement illustrates the type of thinking that Piaget referred to as
c) preformal operations.
Piaget believed that children first become capable of hypothetical thinking during the
a) concrete operational stage.
b) sensorimotor stage.
c) formal operational stage.
d) preoperational stage.
Sarah has learned the word ball. Now all round objects are called "ball". What is Sarah's error?
d) telegraphic speech
At the preconventional level, the child decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they
a) are against the law.
b) bring punishment or reward.
c) are in accord with social rules.
d) fit the child's own sense of "rightness".
If a ball that a five-month-old infant is playing with rolls under a chair (and out of sight), the infant will not look for it. Piaget believed that this occurs because the infant
a) does not understand the concept of roll.
b) has a short attention span.
c) has not developed conservation.
d) has not developed object permanence.
The psychologist who contributed significantly to our understanding of the cognitive development of children is
a) Erik Erikson.
b) Sigmund Freud.
c) Lawrence Kohlberg.
d) Jean Piaget.
Which of the following is true with regard to changes that accompany aging?
a) speed of processing information declines
b) men experience changes with age that are comparable to the female menopause
c) problem-solving ability increases
d) older people frequently fail to understand conservation of quantity
If an infant's basic biological needs are met by others and sound attachments are formed during the first year of life, the infant will, MOST likely, successfully resolve the crisis associated with the ____ stage.
a) industry versus inferiority
b) trust versus mistrust
c) autonomy versus shame and doubt
d) initiative versus guilt
Jeremy's father and two uncles are all dentists. Jeremy first decided he wanted to be a dentist when he spent afternoons at his father's office as a young child. Jeremy has not considered any other potential careers. Jeremy is MOST likely in the identity status of
a) identity achievement.
b) identity diffusion.
c) identity foreclosure.
d) identity moratorium.
Harry has always been a vital and active individual. Recently however, he has begun having difficulty remembering newly learned information after brief periods of time. What disorder are his symptoms indicative of?
a) normal aging
b) Alzheimer's disease
c) Parkinson's disease
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) males tend to score higher on measures of visual-spatial ability than females
b) males tend to exhibit slightly better mathematical abilities than females
c) males tend to exhibit slightly better verbal skills than females
d) males tend to be more aggressive than female
Psychologists who support ____ theories suggest that certain basic cognitive abilities are biologically built into, or prewired into, the neural make-up of humans.
d) behavioral and humanistic
Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development. Which of the following is NOT one of his stages?
d) formal operational
How does the brain change during adolescence?
a) it becomes smaller
b) it becomes larger
c) white matter increases
d) gray matter increase
Suggesting that a poor man who stole food to feed his family was right, because human life takes precedence over rules, is an example of
a) postconventional moral reasoning.
b) preconventional moral reasoning.
c) concrete operational thought.
d) conventional moral reasoning.
The stage during which sexual functions reach maturity that marks the beginning of adolescence is referred to as
b) the growth spurt.
The sociocultural theory of cognitive development was proposed by
Which of the following statements regarding personality changes in adulthood is MOST accurate?
a) personality stability depends on one's sex and socioeconomic status
b) the overall personality undergoes systematic changes throughout adulthood
c) personality remains extremely stable after adolescence
d) the adult personality is characterized by both stability and change
Lily is 85-years-old and she has recently begun writing her life story. As she thinks back over all that she has done, she comes to the conclusion that her life has had no real meaning or purpose. Based on Erikson's theory, Lily may
a) develop a sense of isolation.
b) experience feelings of despair and bitterness.
c) become self-indulgent and self-absorbed.
d) develop feelings of inferiority and doubt
Which prenatal period begins at the second week and ends at the second month of pregnancy?
a) germinal stage
b) embryonic stage
c) fetal stage
d) seminal stag
During Erikson's crisis of intimacy versus isolation the key concern involves developing the capacity to share intimacy with others. This stage is associated with
b) early adulthood.
c) middle adulthood.
d) late adulthood.
According to Kohlberg, a person who believes that Heinz should steal the drug so his wife can live and cook him dinner is reasoning at the ____ level of moral development.
If a child says that the sun shines to keep him warm, the child is exhibiting
Erikson divided the life span into ____ stages associated with ____.
a) four; cognitive development
b) six; moral development
c) eight; psychosocial crises
d) eight; physical development
The bulk of personality change in adulthood occurs between ages
Who developed a stage theory of moral development?
Developing structures generally are most vulnerable to damage from environmental factors during the ____ of prenatal development.
a) germinal stage
b) embryonic stage
c) fetal stage
d) last two months
Research concerning personality development in adulthood focuses primarily on examining
a) the search for a sense of identity during adulthood.
b) gender differences in personality during adulthood.
c) the midlife crisis.
d) the stability of personality over the life span
The idea that even if an object changes shape or appearance the underlying quantity of the object remains the same is Piaget's principle of
a) object permanence.
According to Erikson's theory, an elementary school-age child who does poorly in school, and does not get along well with classmates, is most likely to develop a sense of
a) shame and doubt.
Which of the following is an example of telegraphic speech?
a) That's my cookie!
b) Give me juice!
c) It's mine!
d) Give doll
Your psychology professor tells you that he believes that children's cognitive development is fueled by social interactions with adults and older children who provide guidance to allow the child to gradually increase competence on the task. Which theorist does your professor's view MOST resemble?
a) Jean Piaget
b) Erik Erikson
c) Lev Vygotsky
d) Lawrence Kohlberg
Dr. Wilmark prescribes "medical marijuana" for her chemotherapy patients, even though it is in violation of federal law. She believes it is morally wrong to cause unnecessary human suffering and, if necessary, she is willing to serve time in jail rather than watch others suffer needlessly. Dr. Wilmark's reasons for her actions reflect
a) postconventional moral reasoning.
b) conventional moral reasoning.
c) preconventional moral reasoning.
d) authoritarian moral reasoning.
Recent research suggests that adolescents may be prone to engage in risky behaviors such as reckless driving and unprotected sex because the _____ area of the brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood.
b) prefrontal cortex
c) occipital cortex
At the end of the ____ stage of prenatal development, the developing organism is about one inch long and has already developed most of the vital organs and bodily structures.
Young Benny can reach for his Cheerios with his arm, but cannot yet pick them up with his fingers and hands. Benny's behavior BEST illustrates the ____ trend of motor development.
George watched as a researcher placed five toy dogs and three toy cats on a table. When the researcher asked George if there are more dogs or more animals, George correctly answered more animals. George's behavior indicates that he understands ____ and is in the ____ stage of cognitive development.
a) hierarchical classification; preoperational
b) hierarchical classification; concrete operational
c) conservation; concrete operational
d) conservation; formal operational
During which stage in Piaget's system is the child first able to handle conservation problems and hierarchical classification problems?
c) concrete operations
d) formal operations
Individuals at the ____ level of moral development tend to use a personal code of ethics to guide their moral reasoning and behavior.
The germinal stage of prenatal development is
a) the first two weeks after conception.
b) from two weeks until the end of the second month after conception.
c) from two months after conception through birth.
d) the first three months after conception
Two short, fat glasses with the same amount of water are placed in front of a group of children. The children watch as water is poured from one short, fat glass into a tall, skinny glass. The children are then asked, "Does the tall, skinny glass have the same, more, or less water than the short, fat glass?" Which child is MOST likely to correctly state that the glasses have the same amount of water?
a) Alan who is two
b) Brandon who is four
c) Carol who is six
d) Debbie who is eight
When Sam's mother made him a grilled cheese sandwich for lunch, Sam complained that he wanted two sandwiches because he was super-hungry. After his mother cut his sandwich in half, Sam was satisfied that he would have enough to eat. Sam's behavior indicates that he does not understand ____ and is probably in the ____ stage of cognitive development.
a) object permanence; sensorimotor
b) object permanence; preoperational
c) conservation; preoperational
d) conservation; concrete operational
At puberty, females experience _____ and males experience _____.
a) a decrease in hormone levels; an increase in hormone levels
b) an increase in hormone levels; a decrease in hormone levels
c) menarche; spermarche
d) spermarche; menarche
At what age does an infant typically first exhibit separation anxiety?
a) one to two weeks
b) one to two months
c) six to eight months
d) around one year
Jocelyn is 25-years-old and she feels very insecure about some of the personal and career choices she has made so far. Consequently, at this point in her life she is unwilling to form a serious, committed relationship with another person. Based on Erikson's theory, Jocelyn may
a) become self-indulgent and self-absorbed
b) develop a sense of isolation.
c) experience feelings of despair and bitterness.
d) develop feelings of inferiority and doubt
Which of the following is an accurate portrayal of the relationship between bipolar disorder and unipolar depressive disorder and the threat of suicide?
a) both bipolar and unipolar disorder are linked to an enhanced risk of suicide
b) neither bipolar nor unipolar disorder are linked to an enhanced risk of suicide
c) bipolar disorder but not unipolar disorder is linked to an enhanced risk of suicide
d) unipolar disorder but not bipolar disorder is linked to an enhanced risk of suicide
Preschool children who had secure attachments during infancy tend to display all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
a) greater curiosity.
b) better peer relationships.
c) less persistence.
d) more self-reliance.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three phases of prenatal development?
a) embryonic stage
b) fetal stage
c) fertilization stage
d) germinal stage
When Kohlberg presented moral dilemmas to individuals in order to evaluate their level of moral development, he placed the MOST emphasis on
a) whether the individual gave a "yes" or "no" response.
b) the level of confidence the individual had in his or her response.
c) the explanation the individual gave concerning the reason for his or her response.
d) the overt behaviors the individual showed when presented with a similar dilemma in real life
The adolescent growth spurt begins and puberty occurs approximately ____ in females than in males.
a) two years earlier
b) one year earlier
c) one year later
d) two years later
With respect to cognitive abilities, ______ theories attempt to find out which abilities are prewired, with the belief that such abilities had adaptive significance for our ancestors.
Females exposed to high levels of ________ during prenatal development tend to have masculine interests and preferences for male playmates.
a) lithium chloride
Unlike Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Vygotsky emphasizes that
a) cognitive development is a universal process that unfolds in largely the same way for most individuals.
b) social interactions and culture strongly influence the cognitive development of a child.
c) language does not play a crucial role in cognitive development.
d) a child's active exploration of the world strongly influences cognitive development.