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Manorialism

system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.

Town Charter

a legal document listing the privileges of the towns people; people ruled themselves with the charter

Cathedral

A bishop's church.

Serf

peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free

Monastery

A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.

Gothic Style

type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by west fronts with ornate portals, geometric relationships, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting

Romanesque Style

Massive walls, stone arches, and exterior decoration/sculpture. Borrowed Roman architectural aesthetic features.

Abbot Suger

served as regent of France, abbot of Saint-Denis and was responsible for its rebuilding. Began the Gothic Architecture.

Abbey of St. Denis

Was rebuilt by Abbot Suger

Ribbed vaults

Lighter and stronger than barrel vaults.

Barrel vaults

long rounded ceilings found in romanesque churches. These ceilings needed huge pillars and thick walls to hold them up. Windows were small and set back, they let in little light

Bernard of Clairvaux

Protested against cathedrals, said that the Church clothed the cathedrals with gold yet ignored the naked.

Flying buttress

supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns

Cathedral Chapter

the group of people who were responsible to gather and record finances, hire workers and keep records of the cathedral building process and progress

Post and lintel

a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)

Groin vault

formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles

Romanesque Period

Period during 11th and 12th centuries in western Europe, characterized by influence and interpretation of Roman architecture.

Gothic Period

12th to 14th centuries, characterized by Gothic style architecture.

Ribbed Groin Vault

Allowed for efficient channeling of weight in Medieval Churches

Ile-de-France

Area of France around Paris. Area ruled directly by the King of France.

Sancta Camisia

Relic said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary.

Arcade

A series of barrel vaults

Ambulatory

the passage (walkway) around the apse in a church or around the central space in a central-plan church

Nave

the central area of a church

Side Aisle

smaller aisles to the side of the nave

Transept

either of the two side parts of a cross-shaped church that are at an angle of 90 degrees to the main part

Crossing

the space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept

Choir

The area of the church between a transept and main apse. it is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located.

Apse

A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.

Radiating Chapel

semicircular chapel cutout of the wall of a church, usually for relic display

Gallery

the second story of a church, placed over the side aisles and below the clerestory

Clerestory

The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).

Flying Buttress

a buttress that stands apart from the main structure and connected to it by an arch

Trumeau

in church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway.

Lintel

horizontal beam above the doorway

Typanum

Relief/semicircular zone above the lintel of the main portal that depicts Jesus scenes

Umbria

Earliest settlers of Assisi

majores

The noble class.

Etruscans

Later conquered Umbrians

Minores

Common folk

Villein

Farm laborers, merchants, craftsmen. Like a serf, except had freedom.

Pietro Bernardone

Saint Francis' father

Pica Bernardone

Saint Francis' mother

Simony

Buying/selling of church offices

Poor Clares

an order of nuns in the Roman Catholic Church. It was the second Franciscan order to be established

Third Order

An order of Franciscan friars.

Friar

A male member of the Roman Catholic order; religious man who lived in poverty performing religious services; survived on the charity of others. From the Italian word for "brother"

Medicant

a beggar/ depending upon alms for a living; practicing begging

Canticle of All Creatures

Francis' praise of creation

Cathari

A Christian religious sect that has dualistic and gnostic elements.

Hagiography

biography of a saint that is worshiping or idealizing

Stigmata

Marks resembling the wounds on the crucified body of Christ

Usary

Charging interest on loans (church didn't allow it.)

Master

This member of a guild could own his own shop and tools, as well as employ Journeymen and Apprentices.

Apprentice

Young person learning a trade from a master

Journeymen

apprentices became this, worked for wages for other masters, became masters, expected to produce a masterpiece

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Wife of Henry II

Ovid

Author of Metamorphoses, Ars amatoria, and Remedia amoris

Fabliau

a medieval tale in eight-syllable verse. Humorous, often bawdy, it frequently satirizes women and the clergy. Adaptations of it appear in several of Geoffrey Chaucer's tales, including those of the Miller, the Reeve, the Friar, the Summoner, and the Merchant

Lai

Narrative poem, usually about adventure or romance, sung to popular melodies, made up of several stanzas that do not repeat in form or follow a set pattern

Imagery

description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)

Personification

The attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects or abstract notions

Symbol

Something that stands for something else, especially a material object used to represent something else.

Simile

A comparison using comparative terms such as "like" or "as"

Metaphor

An implied comparison, without using "like" or "as"

Poietes

Poet comes from this word, means maker or creator.

Hylomorphism

Thomas Aquinas' view, which he adapted from Aristotle. Holds that we are two things: form and matter. The soul is the "form" of the body. Both the soul and the body are good; the soul is not simply a good thing "trapped" inside of a bad body.

Alliteration

Repetition of initial consonant sounds

Bob & Wheel

End rhyme form of the poem Gawain and the Green Knight

Caesura

An audible pause or break within a line of poetry.

Pentangle

Five Pointed Star: 5 senses, 5 finger, 5 wounds of Christ, 5 joys of Mary, 5 virtues (generosity, fellowship, charity, chastity, courtesy)

Geoffrey Chaucer

author of the Miller's Tale

Senex amans

Stock character: Old man who married a woman who is way too young for him.

Sely

Silly

Hende

Handy

Joly

Jolly (also pretty)

Vernacular

The everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)

Anachronism

something presented at a time when it could not have existed or occurred

Pageant wagon

Stage that is wheeled around, used in professional staging

Craft Guild

Group of tradesmen or craftsmen engaged in the same occupation joined together.

Merchant Guild

Association of traders who basically ran the town. Not allowed to get rich on your own.

Mansion

Scenic structure used in medieval drama to indicate the locale or scene of the action; areas inside the church used for performing liturgical drama

Platea

the neutral acting area of a stage, could assume the scenic identity of the mansion that was being used

Hell's Mouth

In plays, this was the entrance to hell. Usually highly decorated.

Secrets

Stage machinery of the medieval theatre. The secrets were managed by the Master of Secrets. Special effects, and special stage elements.

Monophony

Single-voiced music without accompaniment

Polyphony

Music arranged in parts for several voices or instruments

Syllabic

One note for one syllable.

Melismatic

Multiple notes for one syllable.

Neumes

The notational signs (notes) of the Middles Ages that were used for writing down plainsong or chant.

Hildegard of Bingen

Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composers and contributor to Gregorian chant.

Magnus Liber Organi

Big Book of Religious Music

Proper of the Mass

The sections of the Mass that are sung to texts that vary each feast day.

Leoninus

originally a canon at the Notre Dame cathedral, became a priest, and was affiliated with the monastery of St. Victor. As a poet, he wrote a paraphrase of the first eight books of the Bible in verse and several shorter works. Contributed to the Magnus Liber Organi et Graduali

Perotinus

Magnus liber organi et graduali refers to him as a master. Used discant clausulae on pieces in the Organi et Graduali by replacing old-fashioned pieces in it written by Leoninus with newer, discant style music

Guillaume de Machaut

Great French poet and composer. One of the most important composers

Kyrie

Lord, Have Mercy

Gloria

Glory to God in the Highest

Credo

I believe in one God

Sanctus

Holy, holy, holy Lord God of Hosts

Agnus Dei

Lamb of God

Tenor

adult male voice between baritone and alto. Held the chant line

Superius

The top voice of a four-voice texture. (soprano)

Contratenor altus

Alto, between superius and tenor.

Contratenor bassus

Below the tenor, bass voice, lowest.

Anselm

Author of Prologion

Inerius

Teacher at the University of Bologna who taught Roman law

Gratian

Scholar of canon law (Church law)

Universitas

Latin word for guild. "Guild of Students"

Trivium

First part of liberal arts studies. 3 parts: grammar, rhetoric, and logic.

Quadrivium

Second part of liberal arts studies. 4 parts: arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, music.

Active Life

Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon some external goal.

Contemplative Life

Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon knowledge for its own sake.

Expanding mind

Increasing knowledge expands interests.

Contracting mind

Current interests limit the scope of future knowledge.

Persona

The speaker is part of the fictional creation, invented for the author's particular purposes in a given literary work.

Allegory

A narrative that serves as an extended metaphor.

University of Bologna

First university. It was a school of law.

University of Paris

One of the first universities. Abelard informally founded it.

Guibert of Nogent

A Monk's Confession

Theophilus

On a Divers Arts, The Treatise of Theophilus

Bonaventure

The Life of St. Francis

Gregario Dati

The Diary of Gregario Dati

Marie de France

Bisclavret and Laustic

Boethius

The De Institutione Musica

Isidore of Seville

The Etymologiarum

Eadmer

Life of Anselm

Christine de Pisan

The Book of the City of Ladies

Romance of the Rose

Medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision

Averroes

Muslim scholar who strongly influenced medieval Christian scholars with his writings on Aristotle

Order of Preachers

1220, Dominicans, stressed preaching and education. Instrumental in the formation of medieval universities

St. Dominic

He established an order which combined the rule of poverty and the practice of mendicancy with careful study and informed preaching. (1170-1221)

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