Water Balance and ECF osmolarity
What is Water intake=water output=2500ml/day?
Beverages, food, metabolic water
What does water intake include?
Urine, insensible water loss (skin and lungs), perspiration, and feces
What is water ouput?
What is the driving force for water intake?
Low Plasma osmolarity 2-3%- Angiostensin II or baroreceptor input- dry moutht-then activation of stomach and intestinal stretch receptors-
What are the hypothalamic thirst center stimulated by?
Hypothalamic osmoreceptors trigger or inhibit ADH release, and changes in blood volume or pressure fever, sweating, vomiting, or diarreah
What are influences of ADH?
Fluids fail to return at the venous ends of capillary beds.
How does Edema occur?
Refers to only to salt balance.
What is electrolyte balance?
Via perspiration, feces, and urine
How does salt leave the body?
Means low swelling of tissues.
What is the main trigger for aldosterone release:
Exitability and muscle tetany
What inhibits neurons and muscle cells, and may cause heart arrhythmias?
What is controlled by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin?
Acidosis (Venous blood and IF fluid)
What is it called when the acid-base balance is below 7.35?
Alkalosis (Arterial blood and IF fluid)
What is it called when the acid-base balance is 7.45?
two years of age
At what age do infance have more ECF than adults?
Low lung volume, high rate of fluid intake and output, high metabolic rate
Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid base balance are most common in infancy?
body water with greater muscle mass
Males have greater ___________
Elder may be unresponsive to thirst cues and at risk of what?