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Vocabulary for the IB Computer Science class.

Abnormal

Data that is totally unexpected. Ex: A string "three" instead of an integer like 3.

Accessor

Extracts information from an object without changing it. Usually prefixed with 'get'.

Address

Reference to a value or object's memory location.

Algorithm

Finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing a task - a Recipe.

Applet

Graphical Java program that runs in a web browser or viewer.

Argument

Value we pass to an object via a parameter.

Array

Type of object used to store groups of similar elements.

Assignment

Storing the right-hand value of a statement in the variable on the left side of =.

Asynchronous

Data transmitted in small amounts at any time.

Attributes

Nouns that describe an object like colors, size, name, and position.

Batch

Processing of data with a delay in data collection and actual data entry.

Behaviors

Verbs that denote the actions of an object or what it does - methods.

Binary

ordered search method - list is halved until required item is found.

Block

Set of declarations and statements between a set of curly brackets { }.

Boolean

Data type used to represent a single true or false value.

Branching

Selection based on a given condition with two outcomes, true or false.

Buffer

Temporary storage location of limited size. holds data waiting to be used.

Bus

Set of parallel wires that allow bits to be transmitted over one of the wires.

Casting

Changing of data type. Ex: int value into a double. Referred to as type conversion.

Character

Data type used for letters, digits 0...9, and punctuation symbols.

Class

Template used to create objects which shows features and how they behave.

Client

Makes requests for service on a network - printing, get files, communication.

Comments

used to give helpful information about a code but ignored by a computer.

Compiler

Converts high-level language (C++) to low level machine language (1's and 0's)

Concatenation

Joining two o more strings or characters together to form one string.

Condition

Logical expression determined to be true or false - if true execution continues.

Constructor

Special method creates an instance of a class executed with "new" command.

Control Statement

Allows a program to proceed in a non-sequential matter. Ex: if/else, switch, while.

Data

Testing that involves valid and invalid input - range checks.

Declaration

Announcement of variable or object - includes data type and identifier.

Dot

Notation used to externally invoke methods. It is not necessary for internal calls.

Efficiency

The time and RAM needed to execute an algorithm.

Encapsulation

The term private is used to protect (hide) data or methods which prevents access.

Encryption

Process of changing data so that it can't be read without a decoding key.

Exceptions

Information about a problem during compiling or execution.

Extreme

Data that lies outside the expected limits.

Field

Variable declared in Class body and outside all Class methods - assigned Default.

Final

Declaration of constant variables Pi=3.14 that should not be changed.

Floating Point

Data type used for any signed or unsigned number with a decimal - double.

Formatted

Numerical and textual values properly aligned in an output display.

Functional

Testing of selection constructs like switch and if/else.

Garbage Collector

Removes stored data from memory at the end of a program's life - Housekeeping.

Hertz

Speed of a computer's internal clock - measure of CPU speed in cycles per second.

Identifier

Name used to describe classes, methods, variables. Starts with a letter - no spaces.

Increment

Increases or decreases for a loop counter. Ex: i++, i--, i+=2, or i=2i+1.

Inheritance

One class assumes the method of another superclass or parent.

Initialization

Sets a variable to a value accomplished with an assignment operator (=) sign.

Instance

An imprint of an object having its own individual properties - field assignments.

Integer

Data type used for any positive or negative number without a decimal point.

Interpreter

Program that reads and executes one line at a time. Ex: Java Virtual Machine.

Local

Variable declared and used only within a method {block} or construct - No default.

Logic

Error caused by incorrect sequence or choice of condition.

Loop

used to execute a block of code repeatedly without writing it multiple times.

Machine

Code created by the compiler or interpreter.

Message

Instruction sent to a class or an object to perform a task.

Method

Seqence of instructions an object follows to perform a task. Behavior - Verb.

Modifiers

Create levels of access - public, private, static, final, and abstract.

Modularity

Problem broken down into smaller components.

Mutator

Method that alters the attributes of an object. Usually prefixed with 'set'.

Nesting

Placing one control statements inside another.

Node

Computer or peripheral (printer) connected to a network. Also element of a tree.

Normal

Data that lies within the expected range - includes data at the outer limits.

Object

Set of related variabes and methods that model abstractions of the real-world.

On-line

Interactive processing of data. The system must have access to stored files.

Operators

Symbols that stand for basic functions (+, -, /, *, %).

Overflow

When a calculation is made that exceeds the upper limit (largest value).

Overloading

Using the same method name but different type and number of parameters.

Parameter

Variable name that is replaced by an actual value or memory location.

Pass-by-reference

Parameters are assigned a memory location or address.

Pass-by-value

Parameters are assigned arguments.

Portable

Code capable of running on different operating systems - Java Bytecode.

Precedence

Rules that govern the order in which an expression is solved.

Primitive

Data types - byte, short, int, long, float, double, char and Boolean.

Prototype

Semi-functional system used to understand how the real one will work.

Queue

Data structure that accesses data in a First In - First Out method - ticket line.

Real-time

immediate processing of data without the intervention of humans - sensors.

Recursion

Repetitive behavior which involves a method calling itself.

Reference

Handle that points to the memory location - address of an object.

Return-type

Data type method will send back to user. Ex: int, double, boolean. If none, then void.

Runtime

Errors caused by a compiled program - ÷ by 0, missing file, underflow/overflow.

Scope

Portion of program in which variable can be used. Local vs. Field (global).

Sequence

Action in an algorithm flow from one step to the next.

Sequential

Unordered search method - each element is inspected until required item is found.

Server

Responds to request of service on a network - prints, sends files, internet connect.

Shadow

Parameter and Class field have the same identifier - use myName or better this.name.

Signature

The access, return type, function name, and parameters of a method.

Source

Code is created by a programmer in an integrated development environment (BlueJ).

Stack

Data structure that access data in a Last In First Out method - pile of plates.

Static

Variable or method that can be called without instantiating the class.

String

Sequence of characters enclosed in quotation marks.

Synchronous

Data transmitted in larger blocks in a timed manner.

Syntax

Errors caught while compiling - caused by misspellings and wrong punctuation.

Tokenize

Method that returns the next word from current line of text.

Trace

Recording expected outcomes (values) of each variable at each step of execution.

Tree

Series of nodes with left (<) and right (>) pointers. Node have max of 2 sub-nodes.

Underflow

When a number is close to its lower limit is divided by a number greater than 1.

Validation

Check data for completeness and accuracy by range, type, and/or format.

Verification

Check data for errors by proofreading or double entry.

Weighted

Check value created by multiplying each digit and then summing the products.

Whitespace

Spaces, tabs, newline, etc. Removed by compression algorithms.

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