AP Human Geography Models & Theories

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Laws of migration

1) Net migration amounts to a fraction of the gross migration.2) The majority of migrants move a short distance.3) Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big cities.4) Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. 5) Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.

Organic Theory

A country, behaves like an organism-to survive, a state requires nourishment, or territory, to gain political power.

Kurgan Hypothesis

The Proto-Indo-European language diffused from modern day Ukraine through conquest.

Concentric Zone Model

1) the CBD; 2) the transition zone of mixed residential, factory, and commercial use; 3) low-class residential homes (inner city); 4) better quality middle-class homes; and 5) upper-class commuters zone.

Gravity model

Interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them (distance decay).

Anatolian Hypothesis

The Proto-Indo-European language peacefully spread through the innovation of agriculture.

Boserup Theory

Population growth stimulates intensification in agricultural development- opposite of Malthus theory.

Urban Realm Model

Creates super cities of multiple urban areas connected by freeways.

Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1=Low growth, Stage 2=High Growth, Stage 3=Moderate Growth, and Stage 4=Low Growth. A country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

Epidemiological Transition Model

Stage 1=Black Plague, Stage 2=Cholera, Stage 3=Chronic disorders, 4=Longer life expectancies. There is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model.

Space-time prism

enclose the locations a person can reach by taking into account various time constraints

3 main eras of immigration in US

1) colonial from england/africa, 2) 19th century from europe, 3) recent from LD regions

Dependency theory

LDC's are poor because they allow themselves to be exploited by the MDC's through international trade and investment

W.W. Rostow's Development Model

Stage 1=Traditional Society, Stage 2=Transitional Stage, Stage 3=Take off, Stage 4-Drive to Maturity, Stage 5=High Mass Consumption

Bid rent theory

price and demand for real estate chagnes as the distance from the CBD increases

Location theory

a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated

Least cost theory

transportation, labor, agglomeration

Central place theory

explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services

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