music final part 1

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T/F: Beethoven's symphonies, sonatas, and quartets are performed in concert and on radio more than those of any other classical composer.

true

What personal adversity did Beethoven struggle to overcome during his adult life?

his growing deafness

Beethoven's music foreshadowed the musical style of the Romantic era. Know which traits are characteristic of his style.

an intense, lyrical expression in his slow movements; allegros have striking themes, pounding rhythms, and dynamic contrasts

All the traits listed below are characteristic of the style of both Beethoven and the Romantic period, with the exception of:

terraced dynamics

[True/False] In spite of being showered by gifts and favors from the Viennese aristocracy, Beethoven generally treated them with great rudeness; in his mind the composer was no longer a servant, at the beck and call of a master, but now a creative genius who must be protected and nurtured.

true

here did Beethoven generally play his Piano Sonata, Op. 13, the Pathétique?

in the homes and palaces of the Viennese aristocracy

The "heroic" period is when Beethoven composed:

(1803-1813); works became longer, more assertive, and full of grand gestures; simple, triadic themes; 6 of his 9 symphonies composed during this time

Which symphony did Beethoven initially dedicate to Napoleon Bonaparte?

Symphony No. 3 in E major: "Eroica"

Which composition conveys a sense of psychological progression over the course of its four movements? An imaginative listener could describe this progression as moving from a fateful encounter with elemental forces, through a period of quiet soul-searching, followed by a further wrestling with the elements, and, finally, a triumphant victory over the forces of Fate.

Symphony No. 5 in C minor

While Beethoven stayed within the bounds of Classical forms, his great urge for personal expression caused him to push their confines to the breaking point

true

[True/False] Beethoven's works became the standard against which subsequent composers of the Romantic era measured their worth

true

[True/False] Romantic artists drew inspiration from the monuments of ancient Greece and Rome.

false

True/False] The idea of "art for art's sake" was born of the Romantic spirit

true

Which term describes when a performer momentarily alters the tempo to enhance the expressive quality of the music?

rubato

ow would Romantic melodies be characterized?

broad, powerful streams of sound intended to sweep the listener away; longer, more flexible, more irregular in shape, more lyrical

hich statement does not describe the melodic style of the Romantic period?

does NOT describe this era.... themes emphasize angularity through disjunct and chromatic movement

What is a character piece?

A brief, instrumental work seeking to capture a single mood, sentiment or emotion; a genre much favored by composers of the Romantic era

What change occurred in the audience's perception of music and composers during the Romantic period?

orchestra produced loudest sonic level of any human contrivance; the big sounds were new and startling

Which instrument was especially favored during the period because of its dark, rich tone and associations with the hunt—and by extension, nature?

french horn

Who was the celebrated violin virtuoso whose amazing technical ability on the instrument led to all sorts of fanciful and lurid rumors?

Paganini

Which non-music art form was particularly important to composers?

literature

What is an art song?

song for solo voice and piano accompaniment with high artistic aspirations

n which country was the art song cultivated with the greatest intensity?

German-speaking lands

A tightly structured group of individual songs that tell a story or treat a single theme is known as a:

song cycle

Which composition typifies the dark Romantic fascination with the supernatural and the macabre, which is evinced most famously in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein?

Erlking

When a song features ever-changing melodic and harmonic material, it is:

through-composed

Determined to become a piano virtuoso, this composer moved to Leipzig to study music. Hopes for a career as a virtuoso were dashed when he/she permanently damaged his/her right hand. Thereafter all his/her creative energies were poured to musical composition and criticism; he/she became an advocate for new music within the German Romantic movement, supporting the works of such "radical" young composers as Berlioz, Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Brahms

Schumann

At her marriage she surpassed her husband in international fame, but put aside her career to be a wife and mother. After her husband's death and needing money to pay the bills, she resumed her career as a touring piano virtuoso, playing in mourning black until she ceased her career in the 1890s

Clara Wieck Schumann

Which diagram represents modified strophic form?

AA'A"A'"

What is program music?

instrumental music, usu. written for symphony orchestra, that seeks to re-create in sound the events and emotions portrayed in some extramusical source: a story, legend, play, novel, or even historical event.

Which composition is an example of the program symphony?

Liszt's "Faust"; Berlioz's "Symphonie fantastique"

Which genre typically precedes an opera or a play and consists of a single movement that encapsulates the essence of the drama?

dramatic overture

dentify the genre of program music that consists of a single movement that gives expression to the emotions and events associated with a story, play, political event, or personal experience.

symphonic poem

Sent to study medicine in Paris at the age of seventeen, he found the allure of music irresistible and decided he would become a great composer. His parents opposed this resolution and his father cut off his living stipend, but he pursued studies in music composition at the Paris Conservatory anyway.

Berlioz

Which instrument is an alto oboe?

the english horn

The name of the burial hymn of the medieval Church is:

Diex Irae

This composer was appointed music director of the Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig, a post he held for twelve years and where he established the pattern that an orchestra should perform a repertoire of musical masterpieces from the past as well as new compositions.

Mendelssohn

This composer moved to Paris where he/she found success and was accepted into the social circle of the rich and powerful. His/her introverted personality and poor health (tuberculosis) made public performances difficult experiences, but he/she played at private musical evenings (musicales) in the homes of the aristocracy and gave lessons for an exorbitant fee that only the wealthy could afford.

chopin

This composer is known as the "poet of the piano" and considered a national hero in Poland.

chopin

Which genre is a traditional Polish dance in triple meter with an accent on the second beat?

mAzurka

Which genre of piano music suggests moonlit nights, romantic longing, and a certain painful melancholy?

nocturne

While in Paris, this pianist heard the great violinist Niccolò Paganini and was so impressed that he vowed to transfer Paganini's virtuosic technique to the keyboard, practicing four to five hours every day to do so. When he returned to the concert stage the audience was overwhelmed.

liszt

This piano virtuoso traveled throughout Europe between 1839-1847, playing more than one thousand concerts and establishing the format of the modern-day piano recital. Audiences responded to his concerts with near hysteria: women tore at his clothing and fought for a lock of his hair.

liszt

What is the term coined to describe the hysterical reaction of audiences during the concerts of Liszt?

Lisztomania

Which term best applies to "recital"?

soliloquies

This genre is a short, one-movement composition designed to improve one or more aspects of a performer's technique.

etude

The Italian term for "beautiful singing" is

bel canto

What is the principal opera house of the city of Milan, Italy?

La Scala

What is meant by the Italian term "Risorgimento"?

The movement for a united Italy free of foreign domination.

Which style of opera did Verdi compose?

bel canto

During the middle years of his career he traveled throughout Europe, residing in Paris whenever he was not supervising a production of one of his operas. It was during this time that he turned his attention from writing operas that embodied national aspirations to personal dramas.

Verdi

.Identify the correct answer for "recitativo accompangnato."

basso continuo

Which two characters have the leading roles in Verdi's opera La traviata?

Alfredo and Violetta

What is the term for the dramatic convention in Italian opera that is a three-movement unit (typically consisting of a slow aria, recitative, and a concluding fast aria)?

scena

A fast-concluding aria in which the increased speed of the music allows one or more soloists to race off stage at the end of a scene or act is known as a:

cabaletta

The German genre that is a musical comedy or light musical drama is:

Singspiel

What is the Ring cycle?

A cycle of four interconnected music dramas by Wagner that collectively tell the tale of Der Ring des Nibelungen

The Bayreuth Festival features works by this composer:

Wagner

hich term did Wagner use to describe compositions for the stage?

music drama

This term, literally meaning "total art work," describes the unification of all the arts (poetry, music, acting, set design, etc.) for a single dramatic purpose.

Gesamtkunstwerk

This operatic term describes a melodic gesture associated with a person, object, or idea.

leitmotif (signature tune)

Which character sings the Liebestod?

Isolde

What is the typical subject matter of realistic opera?

treats the issues of everyday life in a realistic way

Which realistic opera is set in Spain, but sung in French?

Cameron

What is the term for the Italian form of realistic opera?

verismo opera

Born in the northern Italian town of Lucca, generations of his family had been composers and musicians. After he graduated from the Milan Conservatory he lived in poverty for a decade while struggling to develop a distinctive operatic style.

Puccini

Who are the lovers in La bohème?

Rodolfo and Mimi

Which opera is an example of verismo?

La boheme

Musical nationalism was expressed through:

national anthems, protest songs, native dances, and victory symphonies

What was the first country for develop its own musical tradition, separate from the traditions of German orchestral music and Italian and German opera?

Russia

This composer trained as a military officer, but he soon resigned his military commission and took a minor post as a civil servant, a career that allowed more free time to indulge his desire to compose music. His final years were ravaged by alcoholism, depression, and poverty; many of his compositions were unfinished when he died.

Mursorgsky

Much of the cultural heritage of the Czech Republic is:

Slavic

This composer eked out a meager living in Prague for nearly twenty years, working as a freelance violist and organist, playing in dance bands, opera orchestras, and in church, all the while composing continuously—but almost none of these works were performed. Success did not arrive until Brahms encouraged a music publisher to distribute the younger man's music (323)

Dvorkak

he title "furiant" in Slavonic Dances is a reference to what?

a fast folk dance in which duple and triple meter alternate; similar to jump dance, polka

Which music came to dominate European culture during the last decades of the nineteenth century?

orchestral music

This composer first came to the public's attention in 1853, when Robert Schumann wrote an article praising him as heir to the tradition of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. After Robert was confined to a mental institution, he became Clara Schumann's confidant, yet while this friendship and respect deepened into love, their relationship did not result in marriage.

Johannes Brahms

3. Terrified at the prospect of his works competing with those of Beethoven, it was many years before this composer wrote the first of his four symphonies. Although his formal education never went past primary school, he was awarded honorary degrees from Cambridge University (1876) and Breslau University (1879).

Johannes Brahms

What is the term for instrumental music that is free of a text or any preexisting program?

absolute music

Identify the term that means each note is held only for the shortest possible time

staccato

After graduating from the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music, this composer was appointed professor of harmony and musical composition at the newly formed Moscow Conservatory. Before long, however, a wealthy, music-loving widow and the tsar of Russia provided him with a steady income from, and this secure financial backing allowed him to travel extensively in Europe and America.

Tchaikovsky

In Romeo and Juliet, did Tchaikovsky aim to retell as precisely as possible the sequence of events in the final act of Shakespeare's play?

No

Which composer brought the orchestral Lied to maturity?

Gustav Mahler

He is considered the last in the line of great German symphony composers. As a mature composer, he only wrote symphonies and orchestral songs; his compositions are a collage of sound on the grandest scale, and his works employ massive forces as well as an extended sense of time.

Gustav Mahler

The English horn is an alto version of which instrument?

oboe

The term "Impressionism" was first associated with which particular art form?

painting

This composer, who spent nearly his entire career in Paris, was delighted by the bistros and cafes of that city, associating more with poets and painters than with musicians. The Symbolist poet, Stéphane Mallarmé, was a friend and mentor.

Dubussy

his French composer studied piano, composition, and music theory at the Paris Conservatory. While a student, he was hired during the summer months as a pianist to provide music for the family of Nadezhda von Meck, a wealthy patroness. This experience enabled the youthful composer to travel to Italy, Russia, and Vienna.

Dubussy

T/ F: Debussy's approach to composition (replacing the centrality of melody with color and texture) was adopted by the revolutionary figures of twentieth-century music.

True!

Identify the term that describes a group of poets who used words to evoke impressions rather than express literal meaning.

Symbolists

What is the term for a scale in which half-steps are omitted

whole tone steps

Identify the group of Impressionist composers.

Debussy, Ravel, Faure

T/F. Exoticism in Western music first occurred during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

True

Which culture especially delighted composers at the turn of the twentieth century?

The Far East

The nineteenth-century vogue for the art objects and fashions of China is known as:

Chinoiserie

Which term describes sounds drawn from outside the traditional Western European musical experience?

exoticism

Which composer wrote operas based on non-European subjects?

Puccini

Who is the slave girl who gives her life to protect her lover in Turandot?

Liu

This composer spent almost his entire life in Paris, earning a modest living as a music teacher and composer. He traveled to the United States in 1928, however, playing concerts in twenty-five cities and earning enough money to make him financially secure for the remainder of his life.

Ravel

Which composition suggests a sultry Spanish dance?

Bolero

Which composition features a rhythmic ostinato that repeats throughout the entire work?

Bolero

T/F. When modern composers used shocking dissonances to shake their listeners out of a state of complacency with Romanticism, audiences were typically grateful and praised the newest musical efforts.

False

An artistic style that dislocates reality into geometrical blocks and planes is known as:

Cubism

What process is used to construct a disjunct melodic line by placing the next note up or down an octave?

octave displacement

What is the term that describes when a pianist plays—usually with a fist or forearm—a dissonant sounding of several pitches, each only a half step away from the other, in a densely packed chord?

tone cluster

What weakened the traditional role of tonality in music?

musicians were dissatisfied w/ string dominated tone of the Romantic symphony orchestra

Which family of instruments is emphasized in the music of modern period composers?

percussion family

What is possibly the most significant development in the history of modern music?

music color

T/F. In modern music, composers rarely used traditional forms involving clear-cut repetitions and instead attempted to develop a form unique and particular to each new musical work.

True

hich family of instruments is emphasized in the music of modern period composers?

percussion

As a young man, this composer came to the attention of Sergei Diaghilev, who made him the principal composer of the Ballets russe. His three most important ballets, The Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring brought him international fame.

Stravinsky

As a young man, this composer came to the attention of Sergei Diaghilev, who made him the principal composer of the Ballets russe. His three most important ballets

Stravinsky

Who was the impresario of the Ballets Russes that hired Stravinsky to write music for the company, thereby launching the composer's spectacular career?

Diaghilev

Which composition resulted in an audience riot during its premiere performance?

The Rite of spring

Music without a key center is considered:

atonal music

his Expressionist composition features Sprechstimme, avoids melodic repetition, and emphasizes dissonant harmony.

Moonstruck Pierrot

This composer was twenty-one, he started earning a modest living as a musician by conducting a men's chorus, orchestrating operettas, and giving lessons in music theory and counterpoint. While his compositions were performed, they were generally not well received: some Viennese musicians refused to play his music, and audience reaction was sometimes violent

Schoenberg

A highly original composer, he created atonal music, used Sprechstimme to project inner anxiety, and was the father of twelve-tone composition.

Schoenberg

Compositions that place such elements as pitch, timbre, rhythm, and dynamics in a fixed order is called:

serial music

Which idea best describes the purpose of twelve-tone music?

to create musical unity by basing each piece on a single, orderly arrangement of 12 tones, guaranteeing the perfect equality of all pitches so that none would seem like a tonal center

Which composition was written using the twelve-tone method?

Suite for Piano

T/F In the Soviet Union, music that promoted Communist propaganda was identified by the term "formalism."

FALSE

A serious composer, he wrote symphonies, operas, ballets, and concertos and sonatas for the piano. Today, however, he is primarily remembered for such lighter, popular works as film scores (Lieutenant Kijé and Alexander Nevsky) and Peter and the Wolf.

Prokofiev

Which composition illustrates Neo-classicism?

Classical Symphony

Profoundly influenced by folk music, he traveled throughout Eastern Europe and parts of North Africa using Edison's newly invented recording machine to capture peasant music. His mind became saturated with driving rhythms, odd-number meters, and unusual scales of folk music.

Bartok

Which term denotes a light musical interlude intended to separate and thus break the mood of two more serious, surrounding movements or operatic acts or scenes?

intermezzo

The father of this American composer played a central role in his son's musical development, giving lessons on several instruments, teaching harmony and counterpoint, and requiring the boy to do exercises in polytonality. He kept his more radical experiments out of sight during his later studies with Horatio Parker at Yale.

Charles Ives

This composer was active between 1898 and 1917, but considering the art of composition a private matter, his/her works were rarely performed. Word of these unusual creations gradually spread in the 1930s and he/she was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in music for a symphony that had been composed forty years earlier.

Charles Ives

The greatest and most eccentric of American composers, he was the first to employ polytonality extensively.

Charles Ives

hat is the term for art or music made up of disparate materials taken from very different places?

collage art

The simultaneous sounding of two keys or tonalities is known as

polytonality

This composer was born in Brooklyn, New York, and after receiving a rudimentary musical education in New York City he/she sailed for Paris to broaden his/her artistic horizons. After three years, he/she returned to the U. S., determined to compose a distinctly American style of music.

Copland

Which composition is a one-act ballet that tells the story of a pioneer celebration of spring in a newly built farmhouse in Pennsylvania in the early 1800s?(page 397)

Appalachain Spring

This composer became the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in music in 1983 and later the first individual to occupy the newly created Composer's Chair at Carnegie Hall. Royalties and commissions enable this composer to devote time exclusively to composition, unencumbered by teaching.

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich

The style of Zwilich's Concerto Grosso 1985 can best be described as:

"Neo Baroque"

This composer was active between 1898 and 1917, but considering the art of composition a private matter, his/her works were rarely performed. Word of these unusual creations gradually spread in the 1930s and he/she was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in music for a symphony that had been composed forty years earlier.

Ives

ich movement is characterized by the following ideas: art is not for the elite, but for all; all art is of equal potential, so there is no "high" or "low" art; the art of one individual or culture is as important as the next.

Postmodernism

This composer wrote Poème électronique for a multimedia exhibit inside the Philips Pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958. It is one of the first examples of musique concrète and a landmark in the history of synthetic music.

Varese

What is the term for music in which the composer works directly with sounds recorded on magnetic tape, not with musical notation and performers?

Musique concrete

Identify the term that describes when a performer extracts a small portion of pre-recorded music and then mechanically repeats it over and over as a musical backdrop to the text of a song. This often occurs in rap music.

sampling

This compositional method involves an element of unpredictability (rolling dice, choosing cards, etc.) or whimsy on the part of the performers. It is especially popular with avant-garde composers.

chance music

This composer had a special affection for percussion instruments and owned a collection of three hundred instruments by 1941. This interest in percussive sounds led to the innovation of the prepared piano.

cage

This style of modern music takes a very small amount of musical material and repeats it over and over to form a composition.

minimalism

This composer was born in Massachusetts and educated at Harvard, where he was encouraged to compose in the twelve-tone style of Schoenberg. Listening to the Beatles at night, however, he developed a more eclectic musical style that blended classical with popular styles.

Adams

Which composers are considered representative of the postmodern movement?

Varese, Cage, Class, Reich, Partch, Adams, Tavener, Part, Tan

hich pair of composers is not considered representative of the postmodern movement?

Copland and Ives

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