Personality Theory (Exam 4) BANDURA & MISCHEL

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performance standards

those standards that must be met or exceeded before one experiences self-reinforcement
-if a person's performance does not meet or exceed a performance standard, he or she experiences self-punishment
-if person meets or exceeds these standards they experience intrinsic reinforcement
-if person falls short of a standard they experience intrinsic punishment
-modeling influences the formulation of one's performance standards, so relevant people in one's life (parents, siblings, peers) have a profound influence on the development of a child's performance standards

self-punishment

if experiences are incompatible with the goal can cause self-punishment
-if goals are too distant or too difficult personal frustration and depression can occur

delay of gratification

postponement of a small, immediate reinforcer in order to obtain a larger, more distant reinforcer
-Mischel and colleagues explored extensively this topic
-study found that delay gratification increased with age, intelligence, and with shorter intervals of delay

Mischel's study on delay of gratification

study done on 4-5 year old children where they were given a choice between a small reward given immediately or a larger reward given after a delay
-children waited the longest when no rewards were visible
-when rewards were visible it caused the children to think about them reducing their ability for delay gratification
-children who could delay gratification the longest used self-distraction strategies

mischel's study on delay of gratification dramatic findings

interesting relationship between the ability to delay gratification as a preschool child and a number of positive adolescent personality characteristics
-children who could delay gratification even when rewards were visible were rated positively by their parents on a variety of social and academic skills when they were high school students
-SAT scores were sig. related to preschool ability to delay gratification

self efficacy

what a person is actually capable of doing

perceived self efficacy

what a person believes he or she is capable of doing
-influenced by personal failures/accomplishments, seeing models perceived as similar to oneself succeed or fail at various tasks, and verbal persuasion
-important that it is in line with one's true capabilities
-thinking one can do more than they can results in frustration
-thinking one can't do something that they actually are inhibits personal growth
-both result in dysfunctional self expectancies which if severe enough can cause a person to seek psychotherapy

psychotherapy

within social-cognitive theory, any procedure that corrects dysfunctional expectancies
-typically the procedure used is some type of modeling
-goal is to change one's perceived self-efficacy

dysfunctional expectancies

expectancies that do not result in effective interactions with the environment
-such expectancies can result from inaccurate modeling, from overgeneralization of nonrepresentational personal experience, or from distorted perceived self-efficacy

treating phobia study (bandura)

people who suffered a chronic snake phobia were recruited
-each person given a list of various interactions and were to indicate the ones they believed they could do and to indicate the certainty in which they believed they could or couldnt engage in various activities with the snake
-three treatment groups: participant modeling (live model handled snake, than subjects were asked to), modeling condition (subjects observed model but didn't come into contact w/ snake themselves), and control condition (no treatment given)
-participant modeling most effective
-participant and modeling sig. changed their self-efficacy expectations of being able to handle a snake
-SELF EFFICACY EXPECTATIONS WERE ACCURATE PREDICTORS OF BEHAVIOR
-formation of efficacy expectations is based on more than one's experience with successful expereince

freedom versus determinism

bandura rejects the notion that humans are autonomous (free to act independently of the environmental and personal influences impinging on them (aka Hard determinism)
-rejects notion that humans respond mechanistically to those influences
-he accepts reciprocal determinism, people can influence both their behavior and their environment
-humans are rational but don't possess and autonomous free will
-bandura is a soft determinist, allows human behavior to be viewed as teleological or goal oriented, people to be viewed as at least partially responsible for their own behavior

freedom as options

freedom: the number of options available to people and their right to exercise them
-anything that reduces a person's options limits his or her freedom

factors than can limit personal freedom...

-deficiencies in knowledge and skills
-perception of self-inefficacy
-internal standards that are too stringent
-social sanctions that limit a person's opportunities because of his or her skin color, sexual orientation, gender, religion, ethnic background, or social class

mind-body relationships

bandura believes thoughts are higher brain processes rather than psychic entities that exist separately from brain activities.

-while it is true that psychological laws can't violate the laws of the neurophysiological systems that subserve them, attempting to reduce psychology to biology serves no useful purpose

-social cognitive theory contends that psychological laws must be studied independently of neurophysiological laws

Mischel began as situationalist

believed the probability of reward or punishment was the strongest determinant of behavior in any given situation

Mischel later became in interactionalist

saw the importance of both person and situation variables and their interaction

bandura and reciprocal determinism

the person, the person's behavior, and the environment influence each other
-portrays humans as capable of reflective, imaginative thought
-these rational processes in turn determine a person's behavior (soft determinism)

people with high perceived self-efficacy

try more, do more, persist longer, and are less anxious than those with low perceived self-efficacy

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