The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

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The aorta is an example of an _______.

Elastic artery

Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.

Sinusoids

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

Tunic Intima

Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary Arteries

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

Tunic Media

The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima. True or False

False

Gas and nutrient exchange occur in the:

Capillaries

Which vessels carry blood away from the heart?

Arteries

Which statement best describes arteries?

All carry blood away from the heart

The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

Muscular Arteries

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.

Arterioles

Leaky capillaries found in the bone marrow are called_________.

Sinusoidal Capillaries

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins have valves; arteries do not

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ______

Capillaries

A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries. True or False

True

_____ is the pressure that propels blood to the tissues.

Mean Arterial Pressure

Which of the following will lower blood pressure?

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow?

Total Blood Volume

Peripheral resistance ________.

Increases as blood viscosity increases

An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance. True or False

True

Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

Capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

Which of the following is directly involved in long-term blood pressure regulation?

Renal mechanisms

The pulse pressure is ________.

systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

Urinary output

Which of the following would experience a decreased blood flow during exercise?

kidneys

Which of the following would experience an increased blood flow during exercise?

skin

Which of the following would not move by diffusion across a capillary into the surrounding tissue?

Proteins

Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses. True or False

True

The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose. True or False

False

Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

Nitric Acid

Aldosterone will ________.

Promote and increase in blood pressure

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

Changes in arterial pressure

Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg.

True

Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane. True or False

False

Veins only carry oxygen deficient blood.

False

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.

Hepatic portal circulation

The hepatic portal vein ________.

Carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver

Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart. True or False

False

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis. True or False

True

What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?

ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis

The term ductus venosus refers to ________.

a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

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