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Salvation by faith alone, the ministry of all believers, the authority of the bible are principles basic to

Lutheranism in the early 16th century

the Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following?

proclaimed the toleration of Calvinism

The sketch of the moon drawn by Galileo in 1610 was used to argue that the moon

has an irregular surface

"you venetrate the saints and delight in touching their relics, but you despise the best one they left behind, the example of a holy life..." the quotation above expresses views of which of the following?

Erasmus of Rotterdam

John Locke based his Two Treatise on Government primarily on which of the following views of human nature?

people are basically rational and learn from practical experience

Russia acquired navigable seaports in both the north and the south between

1689 and 1796.

which of the following best describes the political and economic environment of much of 15th century Italy?

many independent city states with prosperous merchat oligarchies

the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation included all of the following except:

the abolition of the Index of Prohibited Books

the first political use of the terms "right" and "left" described the:

seating arrangements in the French National Assembly chamber during the French Revolution

Which of the following statements best describes the writers of the Romantic school?

stressed emotion rather than reason

During the Crimean War, most deaths among the military occurred as a result of:

disease and inadequate medical care

in 15th century Europe, Muslim culture exerted the greatest influence on which of the following societes?

the Spanish

in 1500 the 2 most powerful autocracies in Eastern Europe were:

Muscovy and the Ottoman empire

the principal reason why Louis XIV built his palace Versailles was to:

tighten his control over the nobility

in the second half of the 17th century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy?

France

Which of the following best characterizes the Western European economy as a whole in the sixteenth century?

spiraling inflation

in the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Habsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following?

waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the catholic reformation

Which of the following was a major result of the 30 years war?

the loss of as much as one third of the German speaking population through war, plague, and starvation.

After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil war and his execution in 1649, England was governed by:

a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell and his son

Which most clearly distinguishes the norhtern Renaissance from the Italian Renaissnace?

greater concern with religious piety

Adam Smith maintained that:

competition is socially beneficial

Which early nineteenth century political figures was most closely identified with the concept of the "concert of Europe?"

Metternich

a factor accelerating the British government's repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was the:

Irish Potato famine

Which spared Europe a general multinatioal war during the second half of the 19th century?

the functioning of an effective balance of power.

the 18th century philosophes believed that society could best achieve progress through:

scientific empiricism

the model of the universe which resulted from the scientific work of Galileo and Newton embraced:

the science of mechanics

the sequence of events that led to the French Revolution of 1789 is best summarized by:

royal financial crisis, convening of the Estates General, storming of the Bastille

"in the place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonism, we shall have an association, in which free development of each is the condition for the free development of all."

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Which best describes an important trend in typical family size in Western Europe after 1870?

it decreased initially in the middle classes because of the increased costs of rearing children.

English economic expansion was severly threatened in the 18th century can be inferred from the graph above EXCEPT:

the population of eastern europe outstripped that of western europe in size.

"the salon was a weekly gathering held in the hom eof one of the dominant ladies of the society..."

Paris during the Enlightenment

enlightened monarchs of the 18th century supported all of the following EXCEPT:

reform of administration

which characterized European warfare between the peace of Utrecht and the outbreak of the French Revolution?

feudal armies fighting for their lords

under the Napoleonic system, peasants in territories conquered by french armies were generally given:

freedom from manorial oblications

the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people was the explicit goal of:

utilitarianism

"in the presence of my guests i reduced the telegram by deleting words, without adding or altering a single word... " this individual is:

Bismark

the diesase most common in industrialized areas of 19th century Europe was:

tuberculosis

in 1917 the Bolsheviks sought to rally support from the Russian people with which of the following slogans?

peace, land, bread

French leaders decided to occupy Germany's Ruhr valley in January 1923 in order to:

seize goods as payment for Germany's reparations debt

by 1948 soviet dependent regimes existed in all of the following countries except:

Yugoslavia

the french monarchy in the 17th century sought to expand France's borders to its "natural frontiers" by gaining:

Alsace

which of the following caused the deepest and most persistent internal opposition to the French Revolution?

the enactment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

architecture produced in the Napoleonic Empire was influenced most by:

classic models

the graph above depicts the lengths from longest to shortest, the railways of:

the United Kingdom, German states, and France

Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill both wrote:

tracts on liberty and the rights of women

all of the following cities experienced major uprisings in 1848 except:

London

"wherewhich factor best explains the transformation and decline of liberalism described?

inability of laissez faire economics to uproot traditional communal agriculture and guilds

which of the following did Darwin draw on in developing his theories of evolution?

the population theories of Thomas Malthus

the immediate cause of the 1905 russian revolution was social strain resulting from:

Russian losses in the Russo Japanese War

which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution?

the limitation of monarchial power

important prerequisites for Great Britain's industrialization in the mid 18th century included which?

innovations in agricultural techniques and increases in food production

which european country experienced the greatest degree of political instability in the 19th century?

Grance

when Sigmund Freud remarked that "in mental life nothing which has once been formed can perish," he meant that:

the unconscious preserves unpleasant as well as pleasant thoughts

which is common to the works of both Karl Marx and the classical economists?

the overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the revolutionary proletariat is inevitable

during the last third of the 19th century, new industries, uch as those producing electric power and chemicals, advanced most rapidly in which european country?

Germany

"what the breechloader, the machine gun, the steamboat, the steamship guanine, and other innovations did was to lower the cost..." this historian would most likely use which statement to explain imperialism in Africa after 1870?

the power of European technology provided the mechanism that made imperialism cheap and easy

all of the following were invented in Western Europe during the 15 and 16th centuries except:

the Flying Shuttle.

"it was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany..." this refers to:

the Confederation of the Rhine.

in the 16th century, all of the following had religious civil wars or political insurrections except:

Muscovite Russia

the teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland?

John Calvin

Mercantilism was primarily characterized by:

government efforts to build a strong, self sufficient economy

in the late 17th century, which of the following countries led continental europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking?

the Netherlands

in 18th century Europe, the most important imperial rivalries existed amont which three countries?

Spain, France, and Britain

all of the following occurred as a result of the settlements reached at the Congress of Vienna except:

italy was unified under Sardinian leadership

in the mid 19th century, industrial grown in Western europe was significantly stiumlated by the:

expansion of transportation systems

which of the following factors most stimulated the entrance of large numbers of women into the labor force in many European countries during the first world war?

the shortage in labor supply

a social historian would be most likely to research which of the following?

family life in a french village.

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