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Dr. Schmidt studies factors that activate and direct behavior toward an individual's goals called _____________.

Motivation

Innate, biologically determined patterns of behavior are called

Instincts

Motivational tension that activates behavior to satisfy a goal is termed a ___________.

Drive

Basic drives that are related to biological needs of the body or of the species as a whole are called __________ drives.

Primary

__________ approaches to motivation emphasize the appealing properties of external objects or goals.

Incentive

According to Maslow, the needs that must be met before all other needs are ____________.

Physiological

According to Maslow, our highest level need is the need for self-___________.

Actualization

A person seeking a sense of self-worth is at which level in Maslow's hierarchy?

Esteem

Which of the following brain structures has been implicated in monitoring glucose levels and food intake?

Hypothalamus

Brittany has experienced a major weight loss and has begun refusing to eat. She denies that she has an eating problem and does not recognize that she suffers from ____________.

Anorexia Nervosa

Valerie eats huge amounts of food in a single sitting, then vomits and uses laxatives to purge the excess food. Valerie appears to suffer from __________.

Bulimia

Which of the following is NOT one of the female sex hormones?

Androgen

Sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex is called _________.

Heterosexuality

Currently, a majority of American adults indicate that premarital sex is __________.

Acceptable

Larissa is highly invested in initiating and maintaining relationships. She is high in the need for __________.

Affiliation

Psychologists use the term __________ to refer to patterns of physical, intellectual and social change occurring throughout life.

Development

The beginning of Chapter 9 in your text suggests that knowledge and behavior are products of _____________.

Both genetics and the environment

The first 2 weeks of pregnancy, from conception to implantation, are termed the ____________ period.

Germinal

The longest part of a pregnancy, from the 8th week through to birth, is __________ period.

Fetal

Which period of prenatal development is CORRECTLY matched with a description or milestone?

Germinal; the organism grows from one to over a hundred cells

The presence of an extra chromosome results in the developmental disorder called __________.

Down Syndrome

As psychologists use the term, to "habituate" means

To become accustomed

By the end of the 1st week of life, infants display which of the following auditory abilities?

Recognizing their own mothers' voices

Harry Harlow completed a number of studies in which baby rhesus monkeys were raised with two artificial mothers. One of the mothers was made of wire and delivered food; the other was made of cloth and provided no food. Harlow found that when the infant monkeys were startled or frightened, they

Preferred the cloth surrogate that did not provide food.

In Ainsworth's studies on infant attachment, the __________ infants rarely cried when left alone with a stranger.

Avoidant

According to Erikson, the first stage of child's psychosocial development is the ______________ stage.

Trust-Versus-Mistrust

Which age range below is INCORRECTLY labeled with a PIagetian stage?

12 years-adulthood; postoperational stage

During the sensorimotor period

Schemata revolve primarily around sensory and motor abilities

Girls typically experience the adolescent growth spurt ___________ than do boys.

2 years earlier

At least in Western, industrialized nations, the age of the onset of puberty has decreased 3-4 years in the last century. That probably reflects

improved medical care and living conditions

According to Erikson, the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus isolation occurs

During the early adult years

Around the world, in most cultures, rites of passage

Are focused mostly on the coming of age of young males

Denise is in her mid-40's; she has never married and is childless. Her job is routine, and she feels as if she hasn't really done much to contribute to society's future. In Erikson's terms, Denise is experiencing ____________.

Stagnation

Which theory of aging suggests that mechanical functions of the body work less efficiently as people age?

Wear-and-tear theory

Age-related declines are more apparent in ________ than in _________.

Numerical ability; Verbal ability

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the ego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

Reality principle

In Freud's theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed ___________.

Fixations

According to Freud, the developing child must learn to identify with the same sex parent during which stage of development?

Phallic

___________ is often considered the first feminist psychologist.

Karen Horney

Which of the following is NOT one of the "Big Five" personality dimensions?

Psychoticism

Dr. Plater believes that one's personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past. Dr. Plater endorses the __________ approach to personality.

Learning

The degree to which a person assumes mastery and leadership roles in social situations is a trait known as ___________.

Social Potency

Which theories suggest that important components of personality are inherited?

Biological and evolutionary

According to your text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of __________.

Impulsivity

Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of human nature - that humans are essentially "good"?

Humanistic

Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-____________.

Actualization

Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it actually is supposed to measure?

Validity

Which of the following are important criteria for evaluating the usefulness of tests?

Reliability and Validity

A technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with different diagnoses is called test ____________.

Standardization

The use of ambiguous, unstructured stimuli to assess personality is called ___________ testing.

Projective

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