inborn biological givens vs. complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
"tabula rasa" (blank slate) children in the beginning are nothing at all and all kinds of experiences can shape their character. Nurture to shape a child
first successful intelligence test (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale)
Austrian-born British psychoanalyst noted for her application of psychoanalysis to child therapy.
largest portion of the mind; basic biological needs and desires
conscious, rational part ofo personality; emerges in early infancy, ensures that the id is redirected property
conscience; develops from interaction with parents
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
1896-1980; swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations
Psychoanalytic Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To make the unconscious conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality. To assist clients in reliving earlier experience and working through repressed conflicts. To achieve intellectual awareness.
Adlerian Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To challenge client's basic premises and life goals. To offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals. To develop the client's sense of belonging.
Existential Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To help people see that they are free and become aware of their possibilities. To challenge them to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them. To identify factors that block freedom.
Person-Centered Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To provide a safe climate conducive to clients' self-exploration, so that they can recognize blocks to growth and can experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted. To enable them to move toward openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, and increased spontaneity and aliveness.
Gestalt Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To assist clients in gaining awareness of moment-to-moment experiencing and to expand the capacity to make choices. Aim not to analysis but at integration.
Reality Therapy - Goal of Therapy
To help people become more effective in meeting their needs. To enable clients to get reconnected with the people they have chosen to put into their quality worlds and teach clients choice theory.
Behavior Therapy- Goal of Therapy
Generally, to elimiant maladaptive behaviors and learn more effective behaviors. To focus on factors influencing behavior and find what can be done about problematic behavior. Clients have an active role in setting tratment goals and evaluating how well these goals are being met.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Goal of Therapy
To challenge clients to confront faulty beliefs with contradictory evidence that they gather and evaluate. Helping clients seek out their dogmatic beliefs and vigorously minimize them. To become aware of automatic thoughts and to change them.
Feminist Therapy - Goal of Therapy
To bring about transformation both in the individual client and in society. For individual clients the goal is to assist them in recognizing, claiming, and using their personal power to free themselves from the limitations of gender role socialization. To confront all forms of institutional policies that discriminate on the basis of gender.
Family Systems Therapy - Goal of Therapy
Most approaches are aimed at helping family members gain awareness of patterns of relationships that are not working well and create new ways of interacting to relieve their distress. Some approaches focus on resloving the specific problem that brings the family to therapy.
Techniques of Psychoanalytic Therapy
The key techniques are interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference. All designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego. Diagnosis and testing are often used. Questions are used to develop a case history.
Techniques of Adlerian Therapy
Adlerians pay more attention to the subjective experiences of clients than to using techniques. Some techniques include gathering life-history data (family constellation, early recollections, personal priorities) sharing interpretations with clients, offering encouragement, and assisting clients in searching for new possibilities.
Techniques of Existential Therapy
Few techniques flow from this approach, because it stresses understanding first and technique second. The therapist can borrow techniques from other approaches and incorporate them in an existential framework. Diagnosis, testing and external measurements are not deemed important. The approach can be very confrontive
Techniques of Person-Centered Therapy
This approach uses few techniques but stresses the attitudes of the therapist. Basic thechniques include active listening and hearing, reflection of feelings, clarification, and "being there" for the client. This model does not include diagnostic testing, interpretation, taking a case history, or questioning or probing for information.
Techniques of Gestalt Therapy
A wide range of exiperiments are designed to intensify experiencing and to integrate conflicting feelings. Experiments are co-created by therapist and client through I/Thou dialogue. Therapists have latitude to invent their own experiments. Formal diagnosis and testing are not a required part of therapy.
Techniques of Reality Therapy
An active, directive, and didactic therapy. Various techniques may be used to get clients to evaluate what they are presently doing to see if they are willing to change. If they decide that their present behavioris not effective, they develop a specific plan for change and make a commitment to follow through.
Techniques of Behavior Therapy
The main techniques are systematic desensitization, relaxation methods, flooding, eye movement and desensitization reprocessing, reinforcement techniques, modeling, cognitive restructuring, assertion and soical skills training, self management programs, behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and various multimodal therapy techniques. Diagnosis or assessment is done at the outset to determine a treatment plan. Questions are used, such as "what" "how" and "when" but not "why". Contracts and homework assignments are also typically used.
Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Therapists use a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques; diverse methods are tailored to suit individual clients. An active, directive, time-limited, present-centered, structured therapy. Some techniques include engaging in Socratic dialogue, debating irrational beliefs, carrying out homework assignments, gathering data on assumptions one has made, keeping a record of activities, forming alternative interpretations, learning new coping skills, changing one's language and thinking patterns, role playing, imagery, and confronting faulty beliefs.
Techniques of Feminist Therapy
Although techniques from traditional approaches are used, feminist practitioners tent to employ consciousness raising techniques aimed at helping clients recognize the impact of gender-role socialization on their lives. Other techniques frequently used include gender-role analysis and intervention, power analysis and intervention, bibliotherapy, journal writing, therapist self-disclosure, assertiveness training, reframing and relabeling, cognitive restructuring, identifying and challendging untested beliefs, role playing, psychodramatic methods, group work and social action.
Techniques of Family Systems Therapy
There is a diversity of techniques, depending on the particular theoretical orientation. Interventions may target behavior change, perceptual change, or both. Techniques include using genograms, teaching, asking questions, family scuppting, joining the family, tracking sequences, issuing directives, anchoring, use of countertransference, family mapping, refraining, paradoxical interventions, restructuring, enactments, and setting boundaries. Techniques may be experiential, cognitive, or behavioral in nature. Most are designed to bring about change in a short time.