Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.
Psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the process of
The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
Helping patients gain awareness of their unconscious conflicts and defensive behaviors is a major goal of both psychoanalysis and
Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ________ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment.
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
Benny's mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother's strategy best illustrates
Which of the following techniques is derived from classical conditioning principles?
In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when a rabbit was repeatedly presented while Peter was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.
Replacing a negative response with a positive response is to systematic desensitization as replacing a positive response with a negative response is to
In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
Proponents of behavior modification have suggested that institutionalized patients can be weaned from ________ by shifting them to other rewards common to life outside an institution.
a token economy
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from
self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events.
Although originally trained in Freudian techniques, Aaron Beck developed a ________ therapy for depression.
Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.
Melanie's therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates
Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person's role within a social system?
Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
By overestimating the actual benefits of their psychotherapeutic treatment, clients are most likely attempting to satisfy their motivation for
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
The placebo effect refers to
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
Colette received a surprisingly high grade on her first biology test. She failed to perform as well on the second test, however, even though she studied equally for both tests. Which of the following best explains Colette's deteriorating pattern of performance?
regression toward the mean
Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?
regression toward the mean
Meta-analysis refers to
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Klaus is a psychology graduate student who wants to determine whether electroconvulsive therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. To combine the results of numerous published studies on this issue, Klaus should use a technique called
Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effective way to treat Ron's problem would involve
Which form of psychotherapy is especially effective in coping with depression and reducing suicide risk?
Which of the following treatment approaches has received little or no scientific support?
Increasingly, insurer and government support for mental health services requires
Three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies are
hope, a new perspective, and a caring relationship.
Immigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasize the value of
In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
shared the clients' cultural values.
Psychologists with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders, and the practice of psychotherapy are typically
Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
The double-blind procedure involves
a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given patient is receiving a drug or a placebo.
Which drug has provided the most help to schizophrenia patients experiencing auditory hallucinations and paranoia?
Which drug dampens responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms?
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa's symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
Which drug sometimes helps patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as apathy and withdrawal?
Long-term use of certain antipsychotic drugs can produce involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs. This menacing condition is known as
Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help
Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.
Which drug enhances the benefits of exposure therapy and helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD?
Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms following the discontinued use of an antianxiety drug are indicative of
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are called SSRIs because they
slow the normal reabsorption of excess serotonin from synapses.
Dual-action antidepressant drugs work by increasing the availability of
norepinephrine and serotonin.
Edith, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is
Depakote, a drug originally used to treat epilepsy, more recently has been found to be effective in the control of
Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used only with severely depressed patients?
Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?
A chest implant that intermittently stimulates the vagus nerve has been used to treat some patients with
Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering seizures or memory loss?
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
A possible explanation for the effectiveness of ________ is that it may reduce depression by triggering the long-term potentiation of frontal lobe nerve cells
Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently lethargic?
MRI-guided precision surgery is occasionally done to cut the brain circuits involved in severe cases of