Bering Land Bridge
Connected Asia and North America during ice age. Primary route of ancient Americans.
(ca 1050) AKA the Vikings. Early visitors to New Foundland. Leif Ericson, etc.
(1492) Reached the New World for Spain. Probably the Bahamas. Three additional voyages.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) With Pope's approval, Spain and Portugal split New World at the 46th meridian.
(1497) Sailing for England, he "discovers" North America.
(1499) Explored coast of South America. Continents named for him by German cartographer.
(1513) "Discovers" the Pacific Ocean and claims it for Spain.
(1519) Died in the Philippines. His expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
Indian civilization of Central America. Replaced the Maya. Defeated by Cortez (1519) for their gold.
Indian civilization of South America. Located in the Andes. Defeated by Pizarro (1531) for their silver.
The Mound Builders
Indian civilization of North America. Less centralized. In decline by 1500.
Spanish Explorers of North America
DeLeon (Florida). Narvaez and DeSoto (Gulf Plains). Coronado (S. West).
Spanish system of forced labor in Central and South America.
(1565) First Spanish settlement in North America.
Fishing grounds off Canadian coast where fishermen established summer camps.
French Explorers of North America
Verrazzano (Atlantic Coast). Cartier (St. Lawrence). Champlain (Quebec).
(1578) First to see America as a place for the English to live. Lost at sea on return voyage.
(1587) Raleigh's colony in North Carolina that disappeared. Relief fleet delayed by Spanish Armada.
(1607) First successful English Colony in North America. Bad start as colonists search for gold.
Saved Jamestown with strict discipline (no work, no food). Rescued by Pocahontas.
Saved Jamestown with introduction of West Indian tobacco. Married Pocahontas.
(1608) First French settlement in North America. Based on fur trade with Indians.
(1609) Sailed up "Hudson" river and claimed area for Holland.
House of Burgesses meets in Virginia. First African Americans arrive in Virginia. Slavery develops slowly.
Founded by 102 Separatist Pilgrims under the leadership of William Bradford.
America's first written charter of government. Less important to future than often held.
(1624) Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan from Indians and set up Dutch colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
(1630) AKA Boston. Puritan colony led by John Winthrop. Church members vote.
(1634) Founded by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, as a refuge for Catholics.
Maryland Toleration Act
(1649) Religious freedom for all who believed in the Trinity.
(1636) Founded by Roger Williams for purpose of religious liberty.
Amateur theologian, banished to Rhode Island after criticizing sermons.
(1636) Founded by Thomas Hooker for largely economic purposes.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Government by simple agreement among themselves. All could vote.
Great Puritan Migration
(ca 1630s) Movement of Puritans to New England. Ended with Interegnum.
(post 1660) Founded after Interegnum. NY. NJ. NC. SC. PA. DA.
(1664) New Holland surrendered to English by Peter Stuyvesant.
King Philip's War
(1675) Wampanoag chief leads raids that kill 2,000 New Englanders. Soon defeated.
(1676) In VA. Sparked by Indian attacks. Largest popular uprising before Revolution.
(1682) Founded by William Penn as a colony for Quakers and other Christians.
(1682) Reaches New Orleans and claims all the lands drained by Mississippi for France.
(ca 1650) Economy regulated for the good of the state. Sought "favorable balance of trade."
(1651,1660,1663, 1673) British ships. Enumerated goods. Imports through England.
Colonies not strictly monitored or administered from 1700-1750. Free to self-govern.
Salem Witch Trials
(1692) Religious hysteria leads to 20 executions in Massachusetts.
Royal (by the Crown), Self-governing (by the colonists), and Proprietary (by the owner).
Religious, political, and economic. Starts economic, then religious/political, then economic again.
New England, Middle, and Southern. Chesapeake region connects middle and southern.
Contest for the Continent
Four wars between 1689 and 1763 to determine ownership of North America, etc.
(1773) Founded by James Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors, prisoners, and the insane.
The colonies ranked at best 3rd among British concerns, after India and obtaining naval stores.
British theory of representation not requiring direct election of representatives.
American experience. Required direct election of representatives responsible to electorate.
New England Town
Featured common use of land and direct democracy via town meeting.
By far the most common lifeway. Family unit provided work, education, religion, healthcare, etc.
Based on trade. Allowed specialization, ex. dance teacher. Considered wicked by most Americans.
Emphasized staple crop such as rice, tobacco, indigo, or sugarcane. Based on chattel slavery.
First Africans arrived in Jamestown 1619; slavery slow to develop; too expensive, but common by 1660.
Slavery, Part B
Slaves treated better than in West Indies; 4.5% of New World total became 30% today.
The Great Awakening
(ca 1740s) Religious revival based on emotional response; ex. Whitfield; weakened religion.
Brilliant theologian; favored Awakening; ex. "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
Favored a more rational and traditional approach to religion; against Awakening; feared emotionalism.
Favored Awakening; undermined position of clergymen; attracted to itinerant preachers.
AKA the eighteenth century; AKA the Age of Reason; confidence in rational thought.
Rational religion that portrayed god as a clockmaker; no miracles; no divine intervention of any kind.
Enlightenment political theorist; natural law; natural rights to "life, liberty, and property."
(1754) Colonial meeting to discuss common defense; Franklin's intercolonial union rejected.
French and Indian War
AKA Seven Years War. (1754-1763). English under Pitt defeated French and captured Canada.
(1763) Indians attack Detroit and settlements as far South as Maryland; eventually defeated.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade colonists from crossing Appalachians; intended to prevent trouble with the Indians.
Sought to regulate colonies and have them help pay for enormous cost of French and Indian War.
Quartering, Sugar, and Currency Acts
Three Grenville measures designed to regulate and tax the colonies.
The Stamp Act
(1765) Grenville's tax on legal documents and printed materials (even playing cards and dice).
Stamp Act Congress
(1765) Colonial meeting in New York to demand repeal of the Stamp (and Sugar) Acts.
Taxation Without Representation
Colonial argument; however, they opposed representation in Parliament.
Son's of Liberty
Organized by such men as Samuel Adams to use violence against tax collectors.
Economic weapon by which colonists refused to import British goods until repeal.
(1766) Accompanied repeal and stated that Parliament could pass laws "in all cases whatsoever."
(1767) Like Grenville, passed duties on imports. This time: lead, paint, paper, glass,and tea.
Letters From a Pennsylvania Farmer
John Dickinson's eloquent arguments against theTownshend Acts.
"The Boston Massacre"
(1770) Troops sent to enforce Townshend Acts kill 5 colonists; Crispus Attucks, RIP.
(1772) Hated British vessel runs aground and and is burned by Rhode Islanders.
Committees of Correspondence
Formed after England bypasses Rhode Island courts in prosecuting Gaspee Affair.
The Tea Act
(1773) Passed by Lord North; kept Townshend duty on tea; lowered price; led to Boston Tea Party.
(1774) AKA Coercive Acts. Punished Boston for Tea Party; ex. closed port until tea paid for.
The Quebec Act
(1774) Organized Canada without representative assembly; extended it to Ohio River; ominous to colonists.
1st Continental Congress
(1774) Met in Philadelphia to protest Intolerable Acts; adopted Suffolk Resolves & "Association."
Lexington and Concord
(April 19, 1775) First battles of the Revolution; "Shot heard around the world" at Lexington; Guerilla warfare.
Against independence; a good number.
For independence; the majority.
(1775) AKA Breed's Hill. "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes." British force American retreat, but with heavy losses.
2nd Continental Congress
(1775) America's first central government; approved Declaration of Independence.
(1775) George III declares colonists in rebellion and outside his protection.
(1776) His pamphlet "Common Sense" argued persuasively for independence.
Declaration of Independence
(1776) Contained political theory, grievances, and formal declaration of war.
(1777) American victory that leads to French Alliance.
(1777-1778) Washington passes desperate winter while British are snug in Philadelphia.
(1781) British under Cornwallis caught between Washington and French fleet surrender; last battle.
Articles of Confederation
(1781) America's first formal government; gave little power to central government.
(1783) Army officers complain of government's weakness; Washington calms them.
Treaty of Paris
(1763) Formally ended the war; independence attained; left many issues with Britain unresolved.
(1776-1789) Attempts to govern America. 2nd Continental Congress then Articles of Confederatin then Constitution.
(1780) Created by a special convention and therefore superior to the legislature. Model for United States.
Weaknesses of the Articles
Congress could not levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided Northwest into townships of 36 square miles and sections of 1 square mile. 16th section for schools.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Established process of equal statehood; 60,000 needed; no slaves; religious liberty.
(1786) Called to consider extending national authority to regulation of commerce.
(1786) 2,000 farmers from western Massachusetts resist high taxes and foreclosures; quickly put down.
The Federal Convention
(1787) 55 "founding fathers" meet in Philadelphia to draft the Constitution. Madison dominates.
The split of powers between the central government and the state governments.
Separation of Powers
The split of the central government into three parts that "check and balance" eachother.
The Great Compromise
Split of the Congress into the House (based on population) and the Senate (based on equality).
Each slave to be counted as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes.
Slave Trade Compromise
Congress could not interfere with the international slave trade until 1808.
1. Legislative 2. Executive 3. Judiciary 4. States 5. Amendments 6. Supremacy Clause 7. Ratification (1789)
Those supporting ratification (Madison, etc.)
Those opposing ratification (Henry, etc.)
85 articles by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay; expounded the benefits and safeguards in the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
(1791) First 10 amendments; basic limits on federal government; needed to achieve ratification
Victorious general, presiding officer of Fed. Con., and 1st President of the United States.
Congress est. Departments of State, Treasury, War, and Justice; also the postmaster general.
Report on Public Credit
(1790) Hamilton's plan to pay the nation's full debt (including states) at face value.
1st Bank of the United States
(1791) Hamilton's financial institution to promote commerce and industry.
"Strict" versus "Loose"
Should the Constitution be interpreted word for word or more broadly.
Minister of rev. France to the United States; a fool, he meddled in United States policy and lost friends for France.
(1794) Pennsylvania farmers rise up to protest Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; quickly collapses.
The Jay Treaty
(1794) Extremely generous to UK; Hamilton supported it; George Washington reluctantly signed it.
(1795) A better treaty with Spain that guaranteed navigation of the Mississippi, right of deposit, etc.
(1795) Only citizens of a state can bring a case against that state in federal court.
Two Term Precedent
Washington decides to step down after 8 years, once again living out the Cinncinatus myth.
(1797) Washington warns against foreign entanglements and danger of "factions," e.g. political parties.
(1797) Talleyrand asks for a bribe through W,X,Y, and Z; this stirs violent anti-French sentiment.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) Federalist measures; among most repressive acts in United States history.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
(1798) Madison and Jefferson's proposal that states could "nullify" acts of Congress.
(1800) Designed by Pierre L'Enfant; settled upon for its central location.
Pro UK, business, loose construction
pro France, farmers, and strict construction
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's Republicans beat Adam's Federalists; 1st peaceful transfer of power.
Marbury versus Madison
(1803) Marshall's decision established Judicial Review; concerned "midnight judges."
(1803) From France for 15 million; doubled size of country; contradicted strict construction.
(1804) Distinct ballots for President and Vice President; to prevent repeat of 1796 and 1800.
(ca 1804) Aaron Burr and others plot to detach New England from country; leads to murder of Hamilton.
Lewis and Clark
(1804-1805) Explored Western territories as far as the Pacific Ocean; also Sakajawea and York.
(1807) Replaced Non-intercourse Act; Jefferson closed United States ports to avoid war; very unpopular.
Battle of Tippecanoe
(1811) William Henry Harrison defeats Tecumseh's Indian confederation
War of 1812
Caused by impressment, seizure of cargoes, incitement of Indians, failure to abandon forts, etc.
(1814) New England Federalists oppose war and discuss secession from union.
Treaty of Ghent
(1815) Brought peace, but settled none of the disagreements leading to the War of 1812.
Battle of New Orleans
(1815) Jackson defeats British in major action, but after the war has ended.
Era of Good Feeling
(ca 1816-1820) Period of patriotism and political harmony following war.
(1817) Settled outstanding issues with UK; demilitarized U.S.-Canadian border.
1st Seminole War
(1818) Jackson punished Seminoles for incursions; unlawfully deposes Spanish governor.
(1819) Spain cedes Florida to the United States.
(1818) AKA Cumberland Road; first interstate highway; built with federal funds; to Wheeling, Virginia.
Dartmouth versus Woodward
(1819) States can't interfere with contracts; expression of economic nationalism.
McCullogh versus Maryland
(1819) Upheld constitutionality of 2nd Bank; okayed loose construction based on elastic clause.
(1820) Clay's bill; no slavery above 36', 30' N; except Missouri; Maine enters as a free state.
(ca 1820) Clay's neo-Federalism: a high tariff, internal improvements, and a national bank.
Election of 1820
Monroe wins 231 to 1, but the Panic of 1819, sectionalism, etc. were ending the Era of Good Feeling.
(1824) Europeans should stay out of this hemisphere's affairs and vice-versa.
Early Industrial Revolution
(pre-Civil War) Based largely on water power; start of factory system, especially textiles.
Gibbons versus Ogden
(1824) New York could not give steamboat monopoly; only Congress can regulate interstate commerce.
Election of 1829
John Quincy Adams defeats Clay, Jackson, and Crawford (all D-Rs), but with fewer votes than Jackson.
Jackson accuses Adams of making Clay Secretary of State in exchange for his support in the House.
The Erie Canal
(1825) New York pays for Albany to Buffalo canal (350 miles) linking the Atlantic to the mid-west.
(1828) Published American Dictionary of the English Language; fostered cultural independence.
Tariff of Abominations
(1828) Plan of Jackson supporters backfires when high rates actually pass.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
(1828) Calhoun's attack on the Tariff which threatens nullification.
Election of 1828
Jackson soundly defeats Adams on a platform that stressed his popularity and humble origins.
AKA Old Hickory; victory for a common man; he was the first self-made president.
Jackson's Party that first came to power in 1828; modern Democrats trace their origins here.
For the first time candidates are chosen by popular conventions rather than congressional caucuses.
Refers to the expansion of the electorate among white males during Jackson's terms.
Jackson sought advice from a shifting group of men outside the traditional cabinet.
Replacing government officials (ex. postmen) with loyal party members; justified as more democratic.
(1830) Veto of federal money for internal improvements; Jackson vetoed more than all previous presidents combined.
(1830) Began over land policy; grew into debate on States' Rights; Webster for Federal supremacy.
(1831) A slave preacher leads 60 followers against owners; 55 whites killed; Turner executed.
(1831) Garrison's abolitionist newsletter that demanded immediate, uncompensated emancipation.
Black Hawk War
(1830-1832) Chief of Sauk and Fox; attempts to return to Illinois; defeated; writes autobiography.
Worchester versus Georgia
(1832) The Marshall court rules for Cherokee against Georgia; ignored by Jackson administration.
Tariff of 1832
Despite lowering rates to 1824 levels, South Carolina opposes measure and attempts to nullify it.
Ordinance of Nullification
(1832) AKA interposition; South Carolina nullifies tariff; threatens secession if force is used
(1833) Authorized Jackson to use force to collect tariff; (he threatens to hang Calhoun).
(1833) Clay's measure reducing rates over time to 1816 level (20%); South Carolina backs down.
Jackson's plan to destroy 2nd Bank of United States; he considered it elitist, pro business, and anti-Jackson.
Jackson vetoes Clay's and Biddle's attempt to have the bank rechartered early.
Term used to describe the state banks where Jackson deposited federal funds.
(1836) Jackson attempts to control inflation; sale of public lands required gold or silver.
Panic of 1837
Brought on by destruction of 2nd Bank, overspeculation in western lands, trade deficit, and specie circular.
2nd Seminole War
(1836) Indian resistance to removal West of Mississippi; lasted until 1845.
(1836) Sparked by Texas Independence, Santa Anna wins skirmish that becomes symbol for resistance.
Battle of San Jacinto
(1836) Texans under Sam Houston defeat and capture Santa Anna; he signs treaty.
(1836) Jackson's choice for Chief Justice; from Maryland; pro-States' Rights; Dred Scott decision, etc.
Election of 1836
Jackson's hand-picked candidate, Martin Van Buren, defeats a field of "Whig" candidates.
Martin Van Buren
Governor of New York; Secretary of State under Jackson; close to Locofoco's, hard money, anti-bank.
(ca 1836) Anti-Jacksonians; ex. Clay; named for English Whigs who opposed monarch.
Charles River Bridge
(1837) Taney court modifies Marshall giving states more power over corporations.
(1837) While helping Canadian rebellion, US steamer Caroline is destroyed by British.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee are the last of the tribes forcibly moved from the East to West of the Mississippi.
(1839) Undeclared war between Maine and Canada; resolved by Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
(1839) Involves the fate of a group of Black Africans who wind up in New England.
Independent Treasury System
(1840) Van Buren's plan to place all government money in federal vaults.