World War I - World War II

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Imperialism

a cause of World War I that involved European powers competing for colonies

Nationalism

a cause of World War I - loyalty to a nation and promotion of its interests above all others

Militarism

a cause of World War I - policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war

Alliance System

another cause of World War I -defense agreement among nations - Triple Alliance & Triple Entente

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire during World War I

Allied Powers

Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States during World War I

Archduke Ferdinand

Heir to Austrian throne whose assassination sparked World War I

Kaiser Wilhelm I

Leader of Germany during World War I

Czar Nicholas II

Last Monarch of Russia. Led Russia into WW I

Georges Clemenceau

Leader of France during World War I

David Lloyd George

Leader of Britain during World War I

Woodrow Wilson

American President during WWI and created the Fourteen Points

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty that ended WW I. It blamed Germany for WW I and handed down harsh punishment.

1914

WWI begins

1918

End of WWI

League of Nations

world organization formed after World War I to maintain peace

Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottman Empires

These empires ended as a result of World War I

Treaty of Versailles

signed at the end of World War I - forced to sign a war-guilt clause and pay $33 billion in reparations

Germany

This country's unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I in 1917

Russia

This country pulled out of World War I due poltical and economic problems

League of Nations

An international peace keeping organization that did not have the power to enforce decisions

United States

This world power did not join the League of Nations

Mandate System

Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision

Syria and Jordan

French Mandates

Jordan and Palestine

British mandates

Bolshevik Revolution

The overthrow of Russia's provisional government by Lenin and his followers - created a communist nation in Russia

New Economic Policy

Lenin's 1921 attempt to stimulate the Soviet economy

Czar Nicholas II

Russian leader who was overthrown during the first stage of the Russian Revolution

Causes of the Russian Revolution

a) Previous defeat in the Russo-Japanese War b) Landless peasants c) incompetent leadership d)Many defeats and casualties during WW I

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition

Vladimir Lenin

Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.

Fourteen Points

Created by President Wilson to create a lasting peace. It included: League of Nations, Freedom of the Seas, Mandate System, and Self-determination

Self-determination

the right of people to choose their own form of government

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Germany's policy for sinking ships. This caused the United States to enter WW I in 1917

Causes of the Great Depression

1. German Reparations
2. Expansion of production capacities - U.S. dominated global economy
3. High Protective Tariffs
4. Excessive expansion of credit
5. Stock Market Crash in 1929

Impacts of Great Depression

1. High unemployment
2. Bank failures and collapse of credit
3. Collapse of prices in world trade
4. Rise of Nazi Party blaming European Jews

Nazi Party

National Socialist German Workers Party led by Hitler

Totalitarianism

Government control over every aspect of public and private life (examples: Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy during WW II)

Communism

Economic system that is controlled by the Government. No private ownership. (Soviet Union)

Five-year plans

these were economic goals set for increased industrial production in the Soviet union under Joseph Stalin

Great Purge

Beginning in 1934, Stalin's plan to eliminate all opposition to his Communist government (opposition was killed or sent to labor camps)

Collectivization

combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government created by Stalin for the Soviet Union

Inflation

increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money. Germany had high inflation after World War I

Anti-semitism

Prejudice and discrimination against Jews.

Adolf Hitler

German dictator and leader of the Nazi party during World War II

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II

Emperor Hirohito

Emperor of Japan during WWII and was viewed as a god by the people

Hideki Tojo

Military leader of Japan during World War II

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an Iron Curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

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