A major shift in thinking between 1500 and 1700 in which modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world
Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun.
Improved upon Copernicus's theory by showing that the planetary orbits were ellipses (ovals) not circles; wrote mathematical laws describing the movement of the planets
having the sun at the center
having Earth at the center
was forced by the church court known as the Inquisition to swear that the geocentric theory was true
Italian astronomer and mathematician who built his own telescope and found four moons revolving around Jupiter
Discovered the laws of gravity
microscope, barometer, thermometer, telescope
four "key" inventions of the Scientific Revolution
an informal meeting place where ideas are exchanged
a new age of reason in which people discussed how governments and social institutions could be based upon rational understanding
Englishman who wrote that human beings are naturally cruel, selfish and greedy.
Believed that there should be absolute (unlimited) rule by kings
Believed in constitutional monarchy
a form of government in which the monarch's (king's) power is limited by a basic set of laws (constitution)
rights that belong to people simply because they are human beings
Believed that a government should be overthrown by the people if it fails to protect their rights
Baron de Montesquieu
Famous for the idea of having three branches of government so that no one branch may have too much power
Baron de Montesquieu
known for the concept of "separation of powers"
believed in religious tolerance and freedom of speech
believed that punishment should fit the crime, in speedy and public trials, and that capital punishment should be done away with completely
putting someone to death (the dealth penalty)
Declaration of Independence
John Locke's ideas regarding natural rights and the purpose of government are echoed in this U.S. document
U.S. Bill of Rights
This U.S. document protects freedom of speech and religion as championed by Voltaire.
Prominent sponsor of "salons" in France
Advised her prominent husband not to forget women when she stated, "Women will not hold ourselves bound to any Laws in which we have no voice."
Olympe de Gouges
Branded a traitor and sent to the guillotine in France for attempting to organize women. Said that women should have the right to vote, hold office, own property, and serve in the military.
Called for reforms (changes) to give women the same education as men.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
The first person to see bacteria through a microscope
The belief that reason (logical thought) can be used to discover basic truths about the world.