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Chapter 13

Psychological Disorders

View that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the

medical model

medical model, psychological disorders are viewed as

mental illness

medical model, mental illness is also called

psychopathology

medical model, mental illness is diagnosed on the basis of

symptoms

medical model, mental illness is cured by

therapy

universal psychological disorders

depression and schizophrenia

culture bound disorders

anorexia and bulimia

culture bound disorders

share an underlying dynamic, such as anxiety, yet differ in symptoms

most mental health workers take a _______ approach

biopsychosocial

biopsychosocial, they assume that disorders are influenced by

genetic predispositions, physiological states, inner psychological dynamics, social and cultural circumstances

Anxiety disorders are characterized by

distressing, persistent anxiety or maladapted behaviors that reduce anxiety

anxiety disorders differ from normal anxiety in their

intensity and persistence of anxiety

5 anxiety disorders

generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder

generalized anxiety disorder

when a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason

Generalized anxiety, Freud's term the anxiety is

free-floating, in other words it is not affected by external forces

generalized anxiety, can lead to physical problems

ulcers and high blood pressure

panic disorder

anxiety intensifies dramatically and unpredictably and is accompanied by chest pain or choking

people who smoke have an increased risk of

first time panic attack, because nicotine is a stimulant

phobia

an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation

specific phobias

incapacitating fear of a specific stimuli, like thunderstorms

social phobia

when a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others

agoraphobia

when a person fears situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes

obsessive-compulsive disorder

when a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions

older people are (more/less) likely than teens and young adults to suffer from OCD

less

post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by

traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat

post-traumatic stress disorder's symptoms include

haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumping anxiety, insomnia

people who have a sensitive limbic system are more vulnerable to this disorder

post-traumatic stress disorder

survivor resiliency

bounce-back of survivors of trauma that may suggest post-traumatic stress disorder is over-diagnosed

post-traumatic growth

people experience an increased appreciation for life

dissociative disorders

a person experiences sudden loss of memory or change in identity

dissociative identity disorder

a person who develops two or more distinct personalities

Nicholas Spranos

argued that people with dissociative identity disorders are merely playing different roles

those who accept DID as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with

distinct brain and body states

the psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as

ways of dealing with anxiety

others view dissociative disorders as

a protective response to histories of childhood abuse

Skeptics claim dissociative disorders are

sometimes contrived by fantasy-prone people and sometimes constructed out of the therapist-patient interaction

personality disorders

exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair social functioning

avoidant personality disorder

a fearful sensitivity to rejection may predispose it

schizoid personality disorder

characterized by eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement

impulsive behaviors

third cluster of personality disorders

antisocial personality

an individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal

antisocial personality

used to be called psychopaths

there (is/is not) a biological predisposition to antisocial and unemotional tendencies

is

antisocial adolescents tended to have been

impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, low in anxiety

PET scans of murderers have revealed reduced activity in

the frontal lobe

frontal lobe

an area of the cortex that helps control impulses

in antisocial personality disorders genetics (is/is not) the whole story

is not

mood disorders are

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

two forms of mood disorders

following

major depressive disorder

the experience of prolonged depression with no discernible cause

bipolar disorder

when a person's mood alternated between depression and a state of mania

depression is the number one

reason that people seek mental health services

depression is the number one

cause of disability worldwide

phobias

are more common than depression

possible signs of depression

lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities

major depression occurs when signs last

two weeks or more with no apparent cause

depression (can/cannot) be cured without therapy

can

symptoms of mania include

euphoria, hyperactivity, a wildly optimistic state

bipolar disorder is less common among creative professionals who rely on

precision and logic

bipolar disorder is more common among creative professionals who rely on

emotional expression and vivid imagery

schizophrenia refers not to a split personality but rather a split from

reality

Three manifestations of schizophrenia are

disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

positive symptoms

increase personality, display inappropriate behavior

negative symptoms

reduce personality: have toneless voices and expressionless faces

delusions

distorted, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients

psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia patients to a breakdown in the capacity for

selective attention

disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of

hallucinations, which usually are auditory

flat affect

zombie-like state of apparent apathy that some schizophrenia patients lapse into

catatonia

schizophrenia patients may remain motionless for hours and then become agitated

chronic schizophrenia

when schizophrenia develops slowly

chronic schizophrenia, recovery is

less likely

acute schizophrenia

when schizophrenia develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses

acute schizophrenia, recovery is

more likely

Chapter 14

Therapy

mental health therapies are classified as either

psychological therapies, or biomedical therapies

psychological therapy

commonly called psychotherapy

psychotherapy

appropriate for disorders that are learned

biomedical therapies

include the use of prescribed medications and medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

biopsychosocial therapists often blend several psychotherapy techniques

the eclectic approach

psychotherapy integration

attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system

the goal of this psychoanalysis was to help the patient gain insight

Freud's psychoanalysis based on his personality theory

Freud assumed that many psychological problems originate in childhood impulses and conflicts that have been

repressed

Psychoanalysts attempt to bring

repressed feelings into conscious awareness

free association

Freud's technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called

resistance

when a person omits shameful or embarrassing material in free association

insight is facilitated by the analysts interpretation of the meanings of such

omissions, of dreams, and of information revealed in therapy sessions

latent content

Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its

transference

when strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist

psychoanalysts interpretations are

hard to disprove

psychoanalysts therapy is

expensive

self-fulfillment

humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for this

humanistic therapy is focused on

following

on the present and the future

rather than the past

on the conscious

rather than the unconscious

on promoting growth and fulfillment

rather than curing illness

on helping clients take immediate responsibility for their feelings and actions

rather than on uncovering the obstacles to doing so

Client-centered therapy

based on Carl Rogers' theory,

client centered therapy, is non-directive therapy because

the therapist does not interpret the person's problems

Rogerian therapists strive to promote growth in their clients by exhibiting

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

active listening

rogers' technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying

unconditional positive regard and a nonjudgmental environment

patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole

active listening

paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings

behavior therapy applies the principles of ______ to eliminate troubling behaviors

learning

instead of looking for the inner cause of unwanted behavior

behavior therapy applies learning principles to directly attack the unwanted behavior itself

classical conditioning

the basis of one cluster of behavior therapies

counter-conditioning

technique in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one

counter-conditioning examples

following

systematic desensitization

the bunny fearing boy

aversive conditioning

the beer nausea thing

exposure therapies

most widely used techniques of behavior therapy

Joseph Wolpe

developed the technique of systematic desensitization

assumption of systematic desensitization

that you cannot be simultaneously anxious and relaxed

Step one in systematic desensitization

developing a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing stimuli

step two in systematic desensitization

training in progressive relaxation

step three in systematic desensitization

the person is trained to associate the relaxed state with the anxiety arousing stimuli

virtual reality exposure

for those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation or are too afraid or embarrassed to do so

in aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a negative response

for one that is currently positive to a harmful stimulus

in aversive conditioning, a person's unwanted behavior

becomes associated with unpleasant feelings

behavior modification

reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors

operant conditioning is used by therapists who

influence behavior by controlling its consequences

token economy

desired behaviors are rewarded using a points system and operant conditioning

Criticisms of behavior modification

desired behavior may stop when the rewards stop, one person should not be allowed to control another

Pros of behavior modification

some clients request this therapy, control already exists

Advantages to group therapy

save therapists time and clients money, social context allows people to discover that others have similar problems, allows patients to try out new ways of behaving

family therapy

type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to others

family therapy focuses on improving

communication

alternative therapy

today many forms of this are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints

very little evidence, aside from testimonials, based on

controlled research for alternative therapies

eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)

a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine traumatic events

EMDR has proven somewhat effective as a treatment for

nonmilitary post-traumatic stress disorder

skeptics point to evidence that suggests

finger tapping is just as effective as eye movements

key to EMDR seems to be

in the person's reliving traumatic memories and in a placebo effect

wintertime form of depression called

seasonal affective disorder

seasonal affective disorder can benefit from

timed light-exposure therapy

Chapter 15

Social Psychology

social psychologists

psychologists who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

THINK

our attributions of a person's behavior

INFLUENCE

conformity and obedience, individual behavior in the presence of others

RELATE

prejudice, aggression, attraction, altruism

Heider's theory of how we explain others' behavior

attribution theory

dispositional attribution

we attribute behavior to an internal cause

situational attribution

we attribute behavior to an external cause

fundamental attribution error

when a person tends to underestimate the extent to which another person's actions are influenced by social situations

fundamental attribution error occurs because

the observer's attention is focused on the person

when explaining our own behavior, or that of someone we know well, fundamental attribution error is

weaker

when observers view the world from others' perspectives, attributions are

reversed

attitudes

feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose our responses

3 conditions under which our attitudes predict our actions

following

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