biopsychosocial, they assume that disorders are influenced by
genetic predispositions, physiological states, inner psychological dynamics, social and cultural circumstances
Anxiety disorders are characterized by
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladapted behaviors that reduce anxiety
5 anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
when a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason
Generalized anxiety, Freud's term the anxiety is
free-floating, in other words it is not affected by external forces
anxiety intensifies dramatically and unpredictably and is accompanied by chest pain or choking
when a person fears situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes
post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by
traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat
post-traumatic stress disorder's symptoms include
haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumping anxiety, insomnia
people who have a sensitive limbic system are more vulnerable to this disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
bounce-back of survivors of trauma that may suggest post-traumatic stress disorder is over-diagnosed
argued that people with dissociative identity disorders are merely playing different roles
those who accept DID as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with
distinct brain and body states
the psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as
ways of dealing with anxiety
Skeptics claim dissociative disorders are
sometimes contrived by fantasy-prone people and sometimes constructed out of the therapist-patient interaction
exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair social functioning
schizoid personality disorder
characterized by eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement
an individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal
antisocial adolescents tended to have been
impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, low in anxiety
possible signs of depression
lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities
bipolar disorder is more common among creative professionals who rely on
emotional expression and vivid imagery
Three manifestations of schizophrenia are
disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia patients to a breakdown in the capacity for
disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of
hallucinations, which usually are auditory
include the use of prescribed medications and medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
the goal of this psychoanalysis was to help the patient gain insight
Freud's psychoanalysis based on his personality theory
Freud assumed that many psychological problems originate in childhood impulses and conflicts that have been
insight is facilitated by the analysts interpretation of the meanings of such
omissions, of dreams, and of information revealed in therapy sessions
when strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist
on helping clients take immediate responsibility for their feelings and actions
rather than on uncovering the obstacles to doing so
client centered therapy, is non-directive therapy because
the therapist does not interpret the person's problems
Rogerian therapists strive to promote growth in their clients by exhibiting
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
unconditional positive regard and a nonjudgmental environment
patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole
instead of looking for the inner cause of unwanted behavior
behavior therapy applies learning principles to directly attack the unwanted behavior itself
technique in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one
step three in systematic desensitization
the person is trained to associate the relaxed state with the anxiety arousing stimuli
virtual reality exposure
for those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation or are too afraid or embarrassed to do so
in aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a negative response
for one that is currently positive to a harmful stimulus
in aversive conditioning, a person's unwanted behavior
becomes associated with unpleasant feelings
reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors
Criticisms of behavior modification
desired behavior may stop when the rewards stop, one person should not be allowed to control another
Advantages to group therapy
save therapists time and clients money, social context allows people to discover that others have similar problems, allows patients to try out new ways of behaving
type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to others
today many forms of this are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints
very little evidence, aside from testimonials, based on
controlled research for alternative therapies
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine traumatic events
psychologists who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
fundamental attribution error
when a person tends to underestimate the extent to which another person's actions are influenced by social situations
when explaining our own behavior, or that of someone we know well, fundamental attribution error is
when other influences on the attitudes and actions are minimized
when we are not attempting to adjust our behavior to please others
when the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior
when we are in familiar situations in which we don't have to stop and think about our attitudes
whence are especially aware of our attitudes
when the attitude pertains to a specific behavior, such as purchasing a product
the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one
cognitive dissonance theory
thoughts and feelings change because people are motivated to justify actions that would otherwise seem hypocritical
dissonance theory predicts that people induced (without coercion) to behave contrary to their true attitudes will be motivated to
reduce the resulting dissonance by changing their attitudes
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms- extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, chocking, or other frightening sensations.
an anxiety disorder market by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for weeks or more after a traumatic experience
disorders i which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, main, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties to achieve personal growth.
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patine's nervous system.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol.)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
therapy that thetas the family as a system. View an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
suggests how we explain someone's behavior-by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thought (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.