Test #4 Ch. 18

Created by tomas_s_miguel 

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the science that deals with the origin, classification, and distribution of soils is known as _____

pedology

the basic sampling unit in soil surveys is called

a pedon

the basic soil unit used in preparing soils maps; i.e., in identifying a series of soils in an area, is the

polypedon

the general name for any distinct layer in a pedon is

horizon

which of the following soil horizons designations is in the correct sequences from the surface to bedrock?

O, A, E, B, C, R

the movement of material out of a layer is called _____, whereas the deposition of materials in a layer is called______.

eluviation; illuviation

true solum is made up of

a combination of the A, E, and B horizons

The R horizons refers to

unweathered sediment of consolidated bedrock

soil color does not reflect composition or chemical makeup of soils. T/F

False

White to pale color in soils are generally associated with

silicates and aluminum oxides

soils associated with iron oxides generally show ____ color.

red

soil texture describes the size of ____

soil particles

a roughly equal mixture of sand, silt, and clay is called

loam

the arrangement of soil particles is called soil _______

structure

terms used to describe soils structure include ______, _______, and _______

fine, medium, and coarse

a soil rich in hydrogen ions is a(n) _____ soil, and high in base cations is a(n) ______ soil.

acid;basic

the principle natural soil-forming factors

include climate, vegetation, topography

which of the following lists of soil categories gives the proper hierarchy for soil Taxonomy

soil orders, suborders, great groups, subgroups, families, series

a soil order characteristic of the Amazon Basin is a(n)

Oxisol

Salinization is likely to occur

in areas of high potential evapotranspiration and low actual evapotranspiration

at present, which of the soils orders of soil taxonomy occupy the most land area in the United States?

Mollisols

At present, which of the following soil orders occupies the most land area worldwide?

Aridisols

Mollisols are associated with

the greatest grain harvests in the world

which soil order would tend to occur in the southeastern U.S. with its high temperature and humid environment?

Ultisols

heavy, expandable clay soils are classified as

Vertisols

which of the following soils would have limited horizon development and would be destructive of buildings and roads?

Vertisols

Swelling clays can damage foundation because they swell when moisten and shrink when dried. T/F

True

Gelisols are most likely to be found in

Canada

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