Skeletal, Muscular, Endocrine, and Integumentary System Vocabulary

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This is a very extensive flashcard set on human anatomy.

Tissue

a cooperating unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function

Organ

consists of several tissues that together perform a specific task

Organ System

consists of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function

Integumentary System

covers the body and protects it from injury, infection, excessive heat or cold, and drying out; includes skin, hair, nails

Skeletal System

provides body support, protects certain organs such as the brain and lungs, and works with the muscular system in body movements; includes the ribs, clavicle, humerus, femur, etc.

Muscular System

enables body movement and facial expressions essential to human communication; includes heart

Nervous System

coordinates body's activities by detecting stimuli and directing the body's responses; includes brain, spinal cord, etc.

Circulatory System

delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells and transports waste products to excretory organs; includes heart, arteries, etc.

Respiratory System

Exchanges gas with the environment; includes lungs, etc.

Digestive System

Ingests food, breaks it down into smaller chemical units for use by the body, and eliminates undigested material, includes colon, gallbladder, etc.

Endocrine System

secretes hormones that affect the functions of target cells, and thereby regulates the activities of the other organ systems; includes pituitary gland, etc.

Reproductive System

produces gametes; the female system also provides the organs needed to support a developing embryo; includes ovaries and testes

Excretory System

removes waste products from the body and regulates the chemical makeup of blood; includes kidney, urethra, anus

Lymphatic System

supports function of the circulatory system by returning fluid to blood vessels near the heart; also functions as part of the immune system

Immune System

defends body against infections and cancer cells; includes white blood cells, red blood cells, etc.

Epithelial Tissue

sheets of closely packed cells that cover the entire surface of your body and form the lining of your internal organs

Connective Tissue

main function is to hold together and support other tissues, and to cushion, insulate, and connect organs

Nervous Tissue

communication tissue; forms an extensive network of neurons, axons, and dendrites all over the body

Skeletal Muscle

a voluntary muscle; you can control it

Cardiac Muscle

involuntary muscle that cause your heart to pump blood

Smooth Muscle

involuntary muscles that contain smooth muscle tissue and are found in most of your other organs

Homeostasis

internal stability maintained by your body

Hormones

singal molecules released by glands

Interstitial Fluid

aqueous solution that fills the gaps between cells in a tissue

Epidermis

outermost layer of the skin

Dermis

skin layer that lies beneath and supports the epidermis; contains many materials

Hypodermis

skin layer below the dermis; includes fat-storing cells and blood vessels

Melanin

pigmented protein that gives skin its color

Keratin

protein your hair is made of

Hair Follicle

pocket of cells that deposit keratin, forming hair

Vertebra

small bones of the backbone, which protects the spinal cord

Cartilage

type of connective tissue that is softer than bone

Bone Matrix

outer "layer" of bone, surrounds the bone cells; made of the protein collagen and a hard mineral made of calcium and phosphate

Collagen

protein inside bone matrix; keeps bone flexible and non-brittle

Yellow Bone Marrow

in the center of a long bone; consists of stored fat and serves as an energy reserve for the body

Red Bone Marrow

in the bone; produces cells that develop into your body's blood cells

Joint

area where one bone meets another

Immovable Joints

connected bones (joints) that are positioned so they can't move; can protect internal organs better than any other type of joint

Movable Joints

connected bones (joints) that are positioned to allow you movement

Ligament

strong, fibrous connective tissue that holds the bones in a movable joint together

Pivot Joint

type of movable joint that allows a bone to pivot; like a skull moving from side to side on a vertabrae

Ball-and-Socket Joint

type of movable joint that allows a bone to rotate and move back-and-forth and side-to-side; like a shoulder

Gliding Joint

type of movable joint that allow small bones to slide gently over one another; like a wrist

Hinge Joint

type of movable joint that allow bones movement in a back-and-forth motion; like a knee

Tendon

a dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

Muscle Fiber

a single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei

Myofibril

a smaller unit of a muscle fiber; made of repeating units called sarcomeres; has alternating dark and light bands

Sarcomere

a muscle fiber's unit that contracts; composed of two kinds of filaments

Actin

thin filament of a sarcomere; have a twisted, ropelike structure

Myosin

thick filament of a sarcomere; have bump-like projections called myosin heads

Myosin Head Function

1) the myosin heads bind to the thin filament - (actin) 2) myosin heads bend, pulling the actin filament toward the center of the sarcomere - 3) then ATP binds to each myosin head, releasing it from the actin filament - 4) myosin head is free to attach to another actin filament, further contracting the particular sarcomere

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