Chapter 2 - Balance Variety, Moderation

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Which statement best describes nutrient density?
A) Choose a number of different foods within any given food group rather than the "same old thing."
B) Consume a variety of foods from MyPyramid's five major food groups every day.
C) Plan your entire day's diet so that you don't overconsume nutrient sources.
D) Consume foods that have the most nutrition for their kcalories.

D - Consume foods that have the most nutrition for their kcalories

Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
A) sonography.
B) electrocardiography.
C) echocardiography.
D) anthropometry.

D - anthropometry

The acronym RDA stands for
A) Recommended Dietary Allowance.
B) Recommended Daily Allowance.
C) Required Dietary Allowance.
D) Required Daily Allowance.

B - Recommended Dietary Allowance

Which term describes failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs?
A) Desirable nutrition
B) Balanced nutrition
C) Undernutrition
D) Inferior nutrition

C - Undernutrition

The RDAs for nutrients generally are
A) the minimum amounts the average adult male requires.
B) more than twice the requirements.
C) designed to prevent deficiency disease in half the population.
D) designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people.

D - designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people

Tina is consuming 12 mg of iron per day. Her RDA is 15 mg. She has no condition warranting a greater-than-normal need for iron. Which of the following statements is true about her consumption of this nutrient?
A) She is likely to be deficient in iron.
B) She will need to consume significantly more iron, above the RDA, to make up for her intake.
C) Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency.
D) She couldn't possibly be getting enough iron for her needs.

C - Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency

Adequate Intakes (AI)
A) are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs.
B) are established for carbohydrate, total fat, and dietary fiber.
C) represent minimum nutrient needs.
D) are established for all vitamins and minerals.

A - are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs

Which of the following has been set for vitamin D, fluoride, and biotin?

C - AIs

You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The label tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.
A) RDA
B) Daily Value
C) Minimum Requirement
D) ESADDI

B - Daily Value

The term "Daily Values" on a food label refers to
A) a rough guideline based on approximate human needs.
B) RDAs.
C) minimum requirements.
D) AIs.

A - a rough guideline based on approximate human needs

According to the USDA MyPlate, consumption of foods from the Grain group should include
A) an equal amount of whole grain and refined grain products.
B) at least 3 oz. of whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.
C) only whole grain products.
D) a serving of grain products at each meal.

B - at least 3 oz. of whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice or pasta every day

According to the USDA MyPlate, an adult age 18 or older should consume how many cups of milk or milk equivalent per day on a 2,000-calorie diet?
A) 3
B) 1
C) 2
D) 4

A -3

EER refers to
A) a set of nutrient recommendations that includes RDAs, AIs, and ULs.
B) estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern.
C) a person's actual calorie needs, as measured by calorimetry.
D) the level of dietary intake of a nutrient that is likely to meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

B - estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern

Which of the following is not a true statement about the USDA MyPyramid Fruit group?
A) Eat 2 cups every day.
B) Eat a variety of fruit.
C) Include plenty of fruit juices for your fruit servings.
D) Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit.

C - include plenty of fruit juices for your fruit servings

Margaret, an elderly woman, needs to limit her kcalorie intake without sacrificing needed nutrients. Keeping in mind MyPyramid, which of the following could she do?
A) Eliminate carbohydrate.
B) Carefully select foods rich in nutrients but low in kcalories.
C) Count kcalories and not worry about the food groups.
D) Eliminate dairy foods.

B - carefully select foods rich in nutrients but low in kcalories

Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of
A) a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kcalories in that serving.
B) a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of grams of protein.
C) kcalories in a food divided by the amount of kcalories needed in a day.
D) a nutrient in a serving of food divided by the amount of the nutrient needed for that day.

A - a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kcalories in the serving

One cup of apple juice has 111 kcalories and 1.4 mg of vitamin C. The same serving size of orange juice has 112 kcalories and 124 mg of vitamin C. Which of the following is true regarding their nutrient density?
A) Apple juice is more vitamin C nutrient dense than orange juice.
B) To get adequate vitamin C while watching kcalorie intake, it would be better to consume apple juice than orange juice.
C) Apple juice would be a better choice than orange juice in terms of vitamin C, while watching kcalories.
D) Orange juice is more vitamin C nutrient dense than apple juice.

D - orange juice is more vitamin c nutrient dense than apple juice

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends which of the following?
A) Choosing and preparing foods without salt
B) Consuming two alcoholic beverages per day
C) Being physically active each day
D) Washing meat and poultry

C - Being physically active each day

Which of the following statements is consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
A) Choose a diet very low in fat and cholesterol.
B) Balance the food you eat with physical activity.
C) Choose a diet with plenty of animal products including milk and meats.
D) Eat an abundance of saturated fats.

B - balance the food you eat with physical activity

Jeff, a world-class triathlete, visits a dietitian to obtain sports nutrition advice. During his visit, Jeff is asked to recall what he ate for the past 24 hours. Which part of a nutritional assessment is this?
A) Biochemical evaluation
B) Diet history
C) Clinical examination
D) Menu planning

B - Diet history

Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the
A) anthropometric assessment.
B) physical examination.
C) biochemical evaluation.
D) clinical examination

C - biochemical evaluation

Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconscious in her home. A dietitian conducted a nutritional assessment noting the general appearance of Mrs. Mitchell's skin, eyes, and tongue. Which part of the assessment is this?
A) Medical examination
B) Diet history
C) Biochemical evaluation
D) Clinical examination

D - clinical examination

Kate consumes 1,900 kcalories each day. She requires 1,750 kcalories to meet daily energy needs. Over time, Kate's kcalorie consumption could lead to
A) undernutrition.
B) unbalanced nutrition.
C) balanced nutrition.
D) overnutrition.

D - over-nutrition

When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce, you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is
A) the second ingredient by alphabetical listing.
B) just one of the ingredients present in the sauce.
C) the second most abundant ingredient by weight.
D) the second most abundant ingredient by volume.

C - the second most abundant ingredient by weight

According to the Dietary Guidelines the food groups to encourage are
A) milk, meat, and beans.
B) fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole grains.
C) grains, beans, and oils.
D) fruit juice, beans, and meat.

B - fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole grains

The number of servings to consume from each MyPyramid food group depends on a person's
A) height, weight, and waist circumference.
B) taste preferences.
C) age, gender, and physical activity level.
D) frame size.

C - age, gender, and physical activity

Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?
A) A test made to examine the validity of an educated guess
B) An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
C) A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
D) An explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it

C - A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups

Which of the following accurately describes the term hypotheses?
A) A test made to examine the validity of an educated guess
B) An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
C) A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
D) An explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it

An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon

The MyPlate guidelines recommend that we be physically active for at least how many minutes most days of the week?
A) 20
B) 30
C) 45
D) 60

B - 30

RDAs are not used in food labeling because
A) they are age and gender specific.
B) they are too generic.
C) there are too many of them.
D) their values are set too high.

A - they are age and gender specific

Two tablespoons (tbsp) of salad dressing, peanut butter, or margarine is about the size of a
A) yoyo
B) baseball
C) tennis ball
D) golf ball

D - golf ball

One serving of Raisin Bran cereal contains 50 percent of the 18 mg Daily Value for iron. How much iron will one serving of your cereal provide?
A) 9 mg
B) 15 mg
C) 5 mg
D) 36 mg

A - 9 mg

Alan has been hospitalized and you are concerned about his nutritional status. The five ways you would attempt to assess his nutritional status would be to take anthropometric measurements, determine environmental status, and do a biochemical evaluation, clinical examination, and _______________ analysis.

medical analysis

A _______________ is generally a fake medicine used to disguise the treatments of participants in an experiment.

placebo

When using the USDA MyPlate to choose fruits and vegetables, one should include a vitamin C source such as citrus fruit and a dark green vegetable each day, as a source of _______________.

vitamin A

In relation to fats, the Dietary Guidelines recommend choosing foods that contain fatty acids/fats

unsaturated

Which government agency is responsible for most U.S. food labeling?

FDA

Calorie free

Food Label claim defined as containing less than 5 calories per serving

Moderation

Planning food choices so that nutrient sources are not overconsumed

Daily values

Used as a reference for expressing nutrient content of nutrition labels

Over-nutrition

A state in which nutritional intake greatly exceeds the body's needs

RDAs

Recommended nutrient intakes that meet the needs of almost all healthy people of similar age and gender

Phytochemicals

Substances found in plants that contribute to a reduced risk of cancer or heart disease in people who consume them regularly

Nutritional state

Nutritional health as determined by ABCDE assessments

The theme of this chapter and this course, is that a healthy diet can be achieved through a combination of B_____, V_____, and M_____

Valance, Variety, Moderation

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