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7th Grade Science - Cell Unit

The four characteristics of a living thing

Organization (Body Functions)
Grow and Develop
Respond to environment
Ability to reproduce

The three needs of living things

Energy
Materials
Living Space

What is #1?

Nucleolus

What is #2?

Nucleus

What is #3?

Ribosome

What is #4?

Vesicle

What is #5?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

What is #6

Golgi Apparatus

What is #7

Cell Membrane

What is #8

Endoplasmic Reticulum

What is #9

Mitochondria

What is #10

Vacuole

What is #11

Cytoplasm

What is #12

Lysosome

What is #13

Centrioles within the centrosome

What are two organelles that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Cell Walls
Chloroplasts

What functions do the organelles that are found in plant cells serve?

Cell Walls support and protect
Cloroplast is used to produce food through photosynthesis

Explain the differences between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell. Give examples of each

Eukaryotic cell has nucleus.
- contains genetic information about cell.
- Plant cells are eukaryotic.
Prokaryotic cell does not have nucleus.
- genetic information "floats" around in cell.
- Bacteria cells are prokaryotic.

Similarities between Single cell and multicell organisms

Both have some organelles
- nucleus.
- cytoplasm.
- cell membrane.
Both have same size cells.

Differences between single cell and multicell organisms

single cell has one cell, multicell has more than one cell.

single cell organismes tend to be smaller than multicell organisms.

multicell organisms have specialized cells to perform specific functions.

What is cellular respiration

-occurs in mitochondria.
-breaks down chemicals to produce energy.

Why do plants and animals need specialized cells? Give some examples.

Perform functions that sustain life.
- reproduction.
- photosynthesis.
- cellular respiration.

How are specialized cells grouped?

- Cells are organized in organism to perform functions.
- specialized cells group together to form tissues.
- for example, muscle tissue and organs.

What are the levels of organization in a living organism?

Specialized Cell - cells with specific functions.
Tissue - group of similar cells organized to do a specific job.
Organ - Different tissues that work to perform a function.
Organ system - groups of organs that perform a function.

What does semi-permeable or selectively permeable mean?

an object can allow certain things to pass through it, but controls what goes in and out

Asexual reproduction

one organism produces one or more new organisms that are identical to itself and that live independently of of it.

Sexual reproduction

tow organisms produce one or more new organism that are not identical to the parents and that live independently fro the two parents

Binary fission

Occurs in prokaryotes, when partet organism splits in two, produces two completely independent daughter cells

budding

a process in which an organisms develops tiny buds on its body. the bud grows until it forms a new organism.

regeneration

proces of new tissue growth at sites of a wound or lost limb (not a form of reproduction)

What are the advantages of asexual reproduction

fast reproductive rate

what are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction

lack of variety in species, can lead to extinction

Gene

a unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome
gives instructions for a specific trait (blonde hair, blue eyes, etc)

Allele

come in pairs, in alternate forms of same gene
for example; Capital E might mean freckles, lower case e might mean no freckles

Dominant

the strong trait that appears in a persons phenotype

Recessive

the weaker trait that either does not show up when match with a stronger trait
OR
appears when it is matched with another recessive trait from the other parent

Nucleolus

inside the nucleus, produces ribosome parts

Nucleus

near the center of the cell, the "brain" of the cell, controls cell activities "control freak"

Ribosome

on the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm, protein factory for the cell

Vesicle

in cytoplasm, storage area for protein, water, and other substances, carries substances from the endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic Reticulum

in the cytoplasm, transports protein

Golgi Apparatus

in the cytoplasm, packages and stores chemicals in the cell

Cell Membrane

Surrounds animal cell and is inside the cell wall of the plant cell. Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell (gatekeeper)

Mitochondria

in the cytoplasm, produces and releases energy for the cell through cellular respiration (powerhouse)

Vacuole

in the cytoplasm, storage area for protein, water and other substances (there is a much larger one - central vacuole - in a plant cell, they are small in animal cells)

Cytoplasm

Everywhere, Jelly-like structure that fills most of cell, other organelles found in it

Lysosome

in cytoplasm, digests worn out organelles, destroys cell when worn out (garbage man)

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