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After translation is complete, the insulin polypeptide is activated by _____

the cutting of the initial translation product to yield two shorter chains joined together by sulfur linkages

After translation is complete, the insulin polypeptide is activated by _____.

the cutting of the initial translation product to yield two shorter chains joined together by sulfur linkages

Alternative RNA splicing has revealed inaccuracies in the one gene - one polypeptide hypothesis. Why?

Transcription of the same gene can lead to the production of different mRNAs.

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is an X-linked disorder that results in the absence of sweat glands. How would this condition be manifested in a heterozygous female?

She would have a random pattern of tissue with and without sweat glands.

The carcinogen known to cause the most cases and types of cancer is

tobacco

The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called

exons

Colonoscopy is the examination of the large colon. It allows for visual diagnosis of ulcers and polyps, which may lead to colon cancer. A polyp _____.

is a cluster of abnormal cells

The development of colon cancer occurs slowly, and colon cancer is more frequently seen in the elderly than the young. This is most likely because

four or more somatic mutations must occur to give rise to the cancer, which takes time.

A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n)

oncogene

A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n)

oncogene.

Half the trees in an orchard were derived from rootstock "A" and half from rootstock "B," but all the trees had the same scion. If the trees grafted onto rootstock "A" were infected by a parasite that causes blossom rot, the trees grafted onto rootstock B

would be very likely to become infected, because the remaining scions are genetically identical to those that are already infected.

In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines

an operon

In embryonic mice, a homeotic gene controls development of the neck, which includes the larynx and thymus. If this gene were deleted, a full-term mouse would show _____.

lack of development of the larynx and thymus

In eukaryotic cells, several proteins are involved in the process of transcription. This process involves enhancers that are _____.

bound by activators, causing DNA to bend

In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell

becomes a Barr body.

MicroRNA (miRNA) controls _____.

translation

A mistake during DNA replication prevents the trp repressor from binding to the operon operator. When these cells are placed in a solution containing chicken broth, what happens?

Tryptophan would bind to the repressor.

Mutations in the proto-oncogene ras and the tumor suppressor gene p53

disrupt normal regulation of the cell cycle.

n humans, the most common cancer is _____.

lung cancer

Proto-oncogenes have the potential to become oncogenes. Which of the following is most likely to lead to cancer?

a mutation that causes the proto-oncogene to become overactive

The Rb protein prevents mitosis by inhibiting cells from entering S phase. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is thought to inhibit the action of the Rb protein in cervical epithelial cells. What would be the effect of cervical cells being infected with HPV?

the mitotic rate would increase

A researcher performs a DNA microarray but forgets to add the enzyme reverse transcriptase. This is important because the enzyme makes _____ from a(n) _____ template.

cDNA ... mRNA

Researchers have used yeast mating systems as model systems to study

signal transduction systems

Since the first animal was produced using a fully differentiated cell, a number of observations have been made. Which of the following statements is true in regard to reproductive cloning?

Cloned animals develop chronic conditions that are usually only associated with old age.

Since the first animal was produced using a fully differentiated cell, a number of observations have been made. Which of the following statements is true in regard to reproductive cloning?

Cloned animals develop chronic conditions that are usually only associated with old age.

Stem cells could be immensely important in the treatment of which of the following conditions?

spinal cord injuries

To initiate a signal transduction pathway, a signal binds to a receptor protein usually located in the

plasma membrane.

Using nuclear transplantation, it is possible to generate _____ for therapeutic uses.

blastocysts

What controls the way in which a zygote differentiates?

Selective genes are turned on and off, depending on the fate of the cell.

When are DNA molecules the least tightly coiled?

S phase of interphase

Which of the following statements about fruit fly development is false?

The location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization.

Which of the following statements regarding stem cells is false?

Adult, but not embryonic, stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture.

Yeast are able to communicate with each other

through chemical signaling

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