Sociology Final

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According to Randall Collin's research, the expansion of higher education is:

a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education.

The author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology:

Harriet Martineau

In contrast to functionalism, which theoretical perspective borrows from Marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change and is a normal part of society

Conflict Theory

Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as

Dramaturgical Theory

As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following "enables us to grasp history and biography and relations between the two within society:

Sociological Imagination

The approach to sociological research that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory:

Inductive

Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B. In fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake known as

Reverse casuality

Sociologists and psychologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. This could represent a potential problem regarding the goal of generalizability. Why?

College undergraduates are not typical of the public at large.

The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measure the ned time he or she tests a hypothesis is

Reliability

Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probability of spousal abuse. In this hypothesis the stress would the the ____ variable and spousal would be the ____ variable.

independent;dependent

Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books is a part of

material culture

A type of nonmaterial culture known as ____ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes use to understand cause and effect.

Ideology

While they are difficult to define, ____ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant cultural values but also have some of their own, unique material and symbolic culture

Subcultures

The theory that states that culture is a projection of the social structures and relationships into the public sphere is known as

Reflection theory

You take a trip to Alaska and find that Eskimo families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and ca't understand why they don't consider this incestuous. You are being:

Ethnocentric

In the U.S., six major companies, including Disney and Time Warner, own what percentage of the media?

90%

Part of the point of the documentary "Outfoxed" is to show the dangers of the ever-enlarging corporations taking control of the television news media. Although this is a notorious case study of one biased news outlet, Herbert Grans's research in the late 1970s showed that, in fact,

All news outlets are biased.

If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends of on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?

Sociologists focus on the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave.

Which of the following is considered to be an advanced stage of development according to George Herbert Mead?

The game stage

The "I" and "me" are the two parts of the self, as theorized by Mead. Which of the following describes the difference?

The "I" is impulsive and may act selfishly, disregarding social expectations; the "me" is more influenced by societal norms and how we think others see us.

Expected conformity, especially among teenage friends, is known as

Peer pressure

The three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism include all of the following EXCEPT:

Humans inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times and social changes.

So... the three basic tenets are:
-Human being act toward ideas, concepts, and values on the basis of the meaning that those things have for them.
-These meanings are the products of the social interaction in human society.
-These meaning are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs.

Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to studying human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method is called:

Ethnomethodology

Goffman's theory of ____ argues that life is essentially a play, complete with actors, scripts, and roles.

Dramaturgy

Crime and deviance

Can be the same or entirely different phenomena

Who wrote a classic work arguing that the number of people in a group is important in determine the form social relationships will take within that group?

Simmel

When a dyad gains a new member, the third member can gain tremendous power. Which role involves playing one member against the other for his or her own advantage?

Divide and conquer

(other roles --> mediator or the third that rejoices)

The information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power from them.

Social capital

What trend did Robert Putnam focus on in his book Bowling Alone?

The declining interest in community-based activities and organizations.

Organizations that have a set of governing structures and rules for internal arrangements, such as the U.S. Army, are known as:

Formal organizations

C. Wright Mills's term for interlocking directorates

The power elite

The idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them

Positivism

"the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"

Durkheim, Marx, Weber

Merton's theory that states that we learn society's expected goals and means to achieve them, and when we can't achieve them, we may adapt in a variety of ways is called...

Strain theory

Tracy is a person who desires a big mansion and perfect "American Dream" lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this. According to Merton's theory, she is a(n):

Innovator

David Rosenhan sent some of his students to a psychiatric hospital saying they were "hearing voices." Each pseudo-patient was admitted and diagnosed with a mental disorder. He was illustrating

Labeling Theory

What crime has the most financial impact in the U.S. today?

White-collar crime

What standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?

Equality of outcome

Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tend to agree on at least one thing. They both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was the emergence of:

Private property

The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?

Bourgeois

How does the U.S. justify its type of stratification? (That is, what does our dominant ideology tell us about how inequality works?)

A person is in complete control over the class he or she is in. Hard work (or lack of it) determined class.

What group sells its labor to the bourgeoise in order to receive wages?

Proletariat

C. Wright Mills' term for interlocking directorates is:

The power elite

C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the U.S. today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the of the following is NOT one of these?

religion

but the three are..
-economy
-politics
-military

The term that refers to everything you own minus debts such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt:

wealth

NOT
income, investments, net financial assets

The fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education

Low-wage service work

Mobility that is caused by changes in the economy is called:

Structural mobility

Socio-economic status is a multi-dimensional factor that includes:

Education, Income, and Occupation

Dr. John Money claimed a genetic male could be raised as a girl and would turn out just fine. The David Reimer story showed that Money's claims were

wrong

Why would parents and surgeons push to assign a sex to a genitally ambiguous child?

Social discomfort and fear of difference

Emphasis on examples of female subordination in the Arab world, such as female genital cutting, can:

Distract from an analysis on how Western women are also subordinated

The idea that there was only one sex and the female body was an inversion of the male body was promoted by which culture?

Greek

By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender:

May not be stable

Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as

The dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history

Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein coined the term deceptive distinctions to refer to the behavioral differences between men and women that arise because of

The different roles they come to occupy

Bob and Sue paint their baby's room pink as soon as they find out that they are having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?

Her gendered identity

Although female circumcision is a custom in some societies, a structural functionalist might argue that this practice exists because it:

Fulfills some set of necessary functions

Black feminists argue all of the following except:

All women are in a similar boat and faced with the same hegemonic masculinity

They argue..
The experiences of women are to diverse to lump them all into one category
Black women face unique oppressions that white women, and even black men, do not
Dominant white notions of society are sometimes irrelevant to the daily lives of black women.

Prison rape is usually about power, and a man who commits a homosexual act within prison:

Does not necessarily view himself as a homosexual

Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that by "doing gender" men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?

Symbolic Interaction

The concept of race

Has changed over time

NOT..
biological
is stable and constant

The one-drop rule asserts that just "one drop" of black blood makes:

a person black

Although we now now all humans are the same species, there is still an underlying belief that we can trace specific traits through

our race

Aristotle's principal of civil association was that the true test of a person's worth was in what they did, not who they were. All people were included in this EXCEPT:

Women

It did include..
brown-skinned people
whites
nonwhites

The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks

Don't have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty

The majority of Latinos in the U.S. have immigrated here within the last..

40 years

Thought and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as:

Prejudice

Not..
discrimination
modern racism

Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decline in doctors' authority after 1990?

Increase in the death rate of patients under a doctor's care

But these are..
Concerns about the rising cost of health care
Increase in the exploration of the alternative medicine
Rising ability of nurse practitioners to treat patients

A government program that provides health insurance for the poor is

Medicaid

NOT
medicare, blue cross, or HMOs

Morbidity

illness

Mortality

death

The longevity discrepancy between blacks and whites may be a sign of

Social inequality

Why did the elderly who received more Social Security have higher mortality rates than the elderly who received less Social Security and had to work part time?

Those who worked were healthier due to greater social interaction

What is one of the most important factors in defeating infectious diseases, according to the U.N.?

Increasing access to clean water

After mental illness became "medicalized," what was one major change that occurred?

Medication replaced counseling

In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) III:

Adopted a medical model of mental illness

What population currently has the highest rate of HIV contraction in the U.S.?

African-American women

Which profession has the least number of practitioners in the U.S.

Doctors

According to Stephanie Coontz,

Full-time moms were valued, placed on a pedestal and held in high esteem in the 19th century

In the 1950s, which theorist identified the traditional nuclear family model as a functional necessity in modern industrial society?

Parsons

On most weekends, you can find the Smiths doing their assigned chores around the house. Typically, the son mows the lawn and helps his dad with auto maintenance, while daughters help clean the house and prepare the meals. This distribution of chores reflects

How gender roles are learned at home

According to Ruth Schwartz Cowan's 1983 research, time-saving devices like the vacuum cleaner and washing machine have actually increased the amount of time that women spend on housework. What explanation is given for her finding?

Standards of cleanliness have also rise, so even more cleaning is expected.

According to research by Usdansky and Rachel Gordon (and discussed by Stephanie Coontz), what mothers of young children were most likely to experience depression?

Those who were full-time homemakers but wanted to have a job outside the home

What percentage of full-time homemakers said they would prefer to be working at a paid job

40%

Grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins who live together in a multigenerational household are

extended family

Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski examined the family structure on nontraditional cultures and settles a long-standing debate when he concluded that:

The family was indeed a universal human institution

Which of the following characterized the preindustrial family?

Husbands and wives were partners not only in making a home but in making a living

The notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibilities and child rearing is known as

The cult of domesticity

In examining the institution of education, which theoretical perspective focuses on questions such as the following: How important are interactions among students and between student/teachers? Does school have an impact on the development of the self?

Symbolic Interactionism

What percent of the population over 16 lacks the ability to read and write well enough to function in society

14%

Intended consequences of our institutional policies are called:

Manifest functions

The 1966 Coleman Report was a systematic, wide-scale evaluation of data from students and schools facilities that had what surprising finding?

Differences in school characteristics explained very little in terms of achievement; what mattered more was family background and peers.

According to Pitirim Sorokin, we sort students into different classes in school because

some students are naturally talented and better able to excel in school.

The manifest goal of educational tracking is

To tailor a student's experiences in school to best fit their goals, aspirations, and potential

According to Annegrette Staiger, academic tracking and gifted and talented programs

Allow us to reproduce race privilege even as we render it invisible and deny it exists.

How has the boy-girl achievement gap changed during the past several years?

Girls have caught up with boys in most measures of educational achievement.

Adam Smith was an economist who believed that:

-Competition helps maintain a cohesive society
-Specialization increased productivity and innovation
-Using money, rather than barter, makes trading more efficient.

According to Karl Marx, the defining characteristic of any economic system is

social relations of production

The rise of large-scale production, the influx of peasants to urban areas to find work, and the rise of a system of wage labor caused the ____ system to become obsolete, in favor of a new system of legal currency.

Barter

NOT
barter & exchange

All of the following characterize the "new economy" of the 21st century, EXCEPT

Greater company loyalty to workers, including providing better benefits and job security

These do characterize it...
An increase in the number of service sectors
Greater likelihood of part-time work and full-time work with little security
Americans are working more hours, but their wages are stagnating

According to Karl Marx, why are workers in a capitalist economy alienated from the products they produce?

-they have no part in conceptualizing those products
-specialization has them focusing on one small step in a complex production process
-for the most part they could never afford to buy those products

Americans work ___ hours as/than citizens of other industrialized nations, but have ___ vacation benefits.

more; worse

Which of the following is NOT an example of legal-rational institution

A family

But these are..
-prison
-university
-hospital

Charismatic Authority

Authority that rests on the personal appeal of an individual leader

The Second Shift

Hochchild's term for the disproportionate amount of household work that working mothers in the U.S. continue to shoulder

Percentage of Americans that marry at some point in their lives, more than in any other industrialized nation in the world.

90%

Hidden Curriculum

Rather than just teaching "reading, writing and arithmetic," schools also teach approaches to living and attitudes to learning.

Throughout the world, members of _____ groups do less well w/ regard to education, even when they are racially indistinguishable from other groups.

stereotyped

Family Leave Act

Signed by Bill Clinton giving American workers the right to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a newborn baby or attend to family emergencies.

According to Karl Marx, one key characteristic of capitalism is that ____ own their own labor power.

workers

Soft power

Term used to describe non-coercive power, which allows one to get others to do what you want through attraction and convincing them it's really in their own interest.

Contrary to _____ theory, much of what children learn in schools not relevant to the jobs they will have.

Functionalist

Stratification

Describes structured, systematic social inequalities among groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.

Glass Escalator

When token men enter feminized jobs and enjoy a quicker rise to leadership positions.

In the 19th century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to _____

scientific racism

Racialization

A shift from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for heightened discrimination and prejudice.

Federal Housing Administration

Had a pivotal governmental role in shaping segregated suburban housing development in the years following WWII through mortgage guarantees.

Code-Switching

i.e. African-Americans acting differently in white-dominated society in order to be accepted.

Model Minority

i.e. Asian Americans

Gender

The roles created from the socialization that someone experiences determined by their sex.

The leading killer worldwide

waterborne illness

The pay gap between men's and women's full-time, year round pay is approximately:

20%

Medicalized condition

Once though of as a result of moral weakness (alcoholism) it is now considered an illness that is treatable under a doctor's care.

Looking-Glass Theory

Charles Horton Cooley argued that the self emerges from how we envision others perceive us.

Symbolic Interactionism

A theoretical perspective in sociology that focuses on the micro level of analysis.

Deductive Approach

Starting with a theory, then hypothesis, then empirical observations.

Sample

Subset of the population

Culture relativism

Ruth Benedict's term for taking into account differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value.

Socialization

Learning how to be "human" (that is, learning the norms and values) in a culture.

Ascribed status

Involuntary, inherited statuses (such as age, race, and sex).

Generalized Other

Part of Mead's theory of socialization, represents an internalized sense of society's and people's expectations in a variety of social settings.

Dyad

Group of two people

Primary Social Groups

Charles Horton Cooley's definition of social groups where the relationships are intimate and emotional.

Developed the first theory of suicide, also known as normative theory.

Durkheim

Total Institutions

Those in which all aspects of life are conducted n the same place and under the same single authority. i.e. prisons, boarding school, and military boot camp.

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