PLT Grades 7-12 (0624)

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65 terms · Topics covered on the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT): Grades 7-12 (0624(.

Bandura

Originator of the social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy; Bobo doll experiment

Bruner

Cognitive approach to educational psychology; Advocated discovery learning; Learning is an active process

Dewey

Educational philosophy of pragmatism; Emphasized learning-by-doing

Piaget

Theory of cognitive development

Vygotsky

Social interactions play a role in cognitive development; Zone of proximal development

Kohlberg

Theory of stages of moral development

Bloom

Bloom's taxonomy

Metacognition

Thinking about thinking

Schema

A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world

Transfer

Using learned information across subjects

Self-Efficacy

One's belief in his or her own ability; from Bandura

Self-Regulation

Learning guided by metacognition, strategic action, and motivation

Zone of Proximal Development

he range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction; from Vygotsky

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events; from Pavlov

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences; from Skinner

Sensorimotor Stage

The stage (birth to 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities; Level 1 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Preoperational Stage

The stage (2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic; Level 2 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Concrete Operational Stage

The stage of cognitive development (7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events; Level 3 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Formal Operational Stage

The stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12 years of age) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts; Level 4 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Preconventional Morality

The stage of moral development (before age 9) where a child's morality focuses on avoiding/punishment and self-interest; Level 1 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development

Conventional Morality

The stage of moral development (early adolescence) where a child's morality focuses on living up to socail expectations and maintaining social order; Level 2 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development

Postconventional Morality

The stage of moral development where an individual begins to account for differing values and bases moral reasoning on abstract reasoning; Level 3 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development

Trust vs. Mistrust

The stage of psychosocial development where an infant (birth to 18 months) develops a sense of trust; Stage 1 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

The stage of psychosocial development where a child (2 to 3 years of age) develops a sense of control over physical skills; Stage 2 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Initiative vs. Guilt

The stage of psychosocial development where a child (3 to 5 years of age) begins asserting control over the environment; Stage 3 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Industry vs. Inferiority

The stage of psychosocial development where a child (6 to 11 years of age) copew with new social and academic demands; Stage 4 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Identity vs. Role Confusion

The stage of psychosocial development where a child (12 to 18 years of age) develops a sense of personal identity; Stage 5 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Intimacy vs. Isolation

The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (19 to 40 years of age) needs to develop relationships with other people; Stage 6 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Generativity vs. Stagnation

The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (40 to 65 years of age) needs to create things that will outlast them; Stage 7 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (65 years of age to death) needs to reflect and feel a sense of fulfillment; Stage 8 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

U.S. legislation granting educational rights to people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities from birth until age 21; initially passed in 1975, it has been amended and reauthorized in 1997 and again in 2004

Section 504, Rehabilitation Act (504)

Civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs; Eligibility for protection under this act is not restricted to school-age children; Precursor to IDEA

Watson

Founder of behaviorism

Maslow

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Skinner

Operant conditioning

Erikson

Psychosocial development

Thorndike

Theory of connectionism

Self-Determination

Concerned with the motivation behind the choices that people make without external influences

Attribution

The processes by which individuals explain the causes of behavior

Extrinsic Motivation

When motivation comes from outside

Intrinsic Motivation

When motivation comes from inside

Cognitive Dissonance

The discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions; Individuals have motivational drive to reduce dissonance

Positive Reinforcement

Altering behavior by adding a stimuli

Negative Reinforcement

Altering behavior by removing a stimuli

Cognitivism

Individuals generate knowledge through sequential development of cognitive abilities; Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky

Social Learning Theory

Individuals learn within a social context; Modeling and observational learning; Bandura

Constructivism

Explains how knowledge is constructed in an individual when information comes into contact with existing knowledge

Behaviorism

Learning is a change in external behavior achieved through reinforcement and repetition; Watson, Skinner

Attention

An individual becomes aware of the features of a modeled behavior; Step 1 of Bandura's social learning theory

Retention

An individual remembers details in order to learn and reproduce a behavior; Step 2 of Bandura's social learning theory

Reproduction

An individual must organize the response in accordance with a modeled behavior; Step 3 of Bandura's social learning theory

Motivation

There must be incentive driving an individual to reproduce a behavior; Step 4 of Bandura's social learning theory

Test Validity

The extent to which an assessment measures what it is meant to measure

Test Reliablity

The extent to which an assessment provides consistent results

Raw Score

Assessment score based solely on the number of correctly answered items

Scaled Score

Assessment score relative to the number of questions and/or peer results

Percentile

Assessment score along a continuum

Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

Mean

Average value

Median

Central value

Mode

The most common value

Grade-Equivalent Scores

Assessment score relative to other students in the same grade

Age-Equivalent Scores

Assessment score relative to other students of the same age

Bloom's Taxonomy

A hierarchy of cognitive levels which categorizes the skills required at each level according to difficulty

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