The firing of a neuron. Occurs when charge inside neuron becomes more positive than charge outside.
neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement, sleep and wakefulness. Too little is associated with Alzheimer's
Part of brain's limbic system that attaches emotional significance to info and mediates both defensive and aggressive behavior.
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing child's ability to control his or her own world.
Analysis of Variance
Inferential statistical procedure used to compare 2 or more means to see if the difference is not chance (need p<.05 for statistical significance)
Impairment of ability to communicate either through oral or written discourse as a result of brain damage. Ex. Wernicke's ________ or Broca's __________
conflict presented when 2 opposite but equally appealing choices are available but can not both be obtained.
conflict presented when the best positive choice will result in a negative outcome as well as positive.
Optimum Arousal Theory
Theory stating that we are motivated by our innate desire to maintain an personally preferred level of arousal.
Theory that argues people look for explanation of behavior, associating either dispositional (internal) explanations or situational (external) explanations
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.
Parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence.
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary actions of body (e.g., breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation). Also regulates Fight or Flight Phenomenon.
Rule of thumb stating that info more readily accessible in our memory is more important than info not as easily accessible.
Behavioral treatment where disliked stimuli is paired with a negative behavior in hopes that behavior will change in future to avoid the disliked stimuli.
School of psychology founded on premise that behavior is measurable and can be changed through the application of various behavioral principles. DENIES EXISTENCE OF UNCONSCIOUS
Visual hints (convergence and retinal disparity) that require both eyes to perceive distance (as opposed to those requiring only one eye)
Loss of function associated with damage to a specific area of the left frontal lobe, demonstrated by impairment in producing understandable speech.
According to Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, fear a boy in phallic stage experiences due to a fear that his father will render him powerless if his father finds out about his attraction toward his mother.
Emotional release associated with expression of unconscious conflicts Freud's idea for releasing anger - not supported by research
statistical measures attempting to depict average score in a distribution (includes mean, median, and/or mode)
young child's inability to understand another person's perspective - typical of Piaget's preoperational stage
Part of brain associated with balance, smooth movement, and posture & implicit (also called procedural or nondeclarative) memories
Combining info to be remembered into small groups (e.g., a seven chunk phone number such as two groups one of 3 and one of 4) to increase STM
Behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occurring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occurring.
Client Centered Therapy
humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that individual has unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Coefficient of Determination
Statistic that represents amount of variance accounted for by a correlation.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Treatment involving the combination of theories of learning and those based on the theory that our thoughts control a large portion of our behaviors).
Realization of contradictions in one's own attitudes and behaviors that causes discomfort
Sub-field of psychology associated with information processing and role it plays in emotion, behavior, and physiology.
Treatment approach based on theory that our thoughts control a large part of our behaviors and emotions. Therefore, changing the way we think can result in positive changes in the way we act and feel.
According to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from generation to generation in all humans.
Physical act resulting from an obsession. Typically done to alleviate the discomfort created by an obsession.
Concrete Operational Stage
According to Piaget - stage of cognitive development where child between ages of 7 and 12 begins thinking more globally and outside of the self but are still deficient in abstract thought.
Response in a stimulus-response chain that is not naturally occurring, but has been learned through pairing it with a naturally occurring chain.
Stimulus in a stimulus-response chain that is not naturally occurring, but has been learned through pairing with a naturally occurring chain.
Learning. Process of learning new behaviors or responses as a result of their consequences.
Changing your attitudes, beliefs, thoughts, or behaviors in order to be more consistent with others and fit in with the group
Any variable not part of research study that has an effect on research results (unintended)
Understanding, typically achieved in concrete operations that matter remains the same even when the shape changes (i.e., a pound of clay is still a pound of clay whether is is rolled in a ball or pounded flat). Piaget term
Any variable that can not be directly observed but rather is measured through indirect methods. (Examples: intelligence, motivation)
Validity answers the question of whether or not the measuring device actually measures the theoretical idea under question.
A measurement device's ability to be generalized to the entire content of what is being measured.
Context Dependent Memory
Theory that info learned in a particular situation or place is better remembered when in that same situation or place.
Binocular cue to distance referring to fact that the closer an object is, the more inward our eyes need to turn in order to focus
Somatoform disorder where individual experiences a loss of sensation or function due to a psychological belief (e.g., paralysis, blindness, deafness).
Degree to which two or more variables are related to each other. Refers to direction that variables move and does not necessarily represent cause and effect.
Statistic or number representing the degree to which two or more variables are related. Often abbreviated 'r.' Ex. r= 1.0 or r- -.8
Use of conditioning to eliminate a previously conditioned response. Conditioned stimulus (CS) is repaired with a different unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to eventually elicit a new conditioned response (CR) Ex. Mary Cover Jones
Time frame deemed highly important in developing in a healthy manner; can be physically, emotionally, behaviorally, or cognitively.
Cross Sectional Study
A research study that examines effects of development (maturation) by examining different subjects at various ages at the same time.
The part of intelligence which involves acquisition, as opposed to the use, of info- Increases with age
Theory which states that memory fades and/or disappears over time if it is not used or accessed.
Part of LTM where factual info is stored, such as math formulas, vocabulary, & life events. Semantic and episodic memories
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the general to the specific.
Freud's term for psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering consciousness and reduce anxiety
False belief (e.g., believing you are Napoleon, have magical powers, or the false belief that others are 'out to get you.').
The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what is happening now within a population.
Area of psychology focused on how children grow psychologically to become who they are as adults.
In behavioral theory - learned ability to differentiate between 2 similar objects or situations.
A behavior explained or interpreted as being caused by internal influences.
A separation from self. Most of us experience this in very mild forms such as when we are driving long distance and lose time or find ourselves day dreaming longer than we thought.
The ability to arrive at multiple solutions to a problem or idea - associated with creativity
Neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
Theory that schizophrenia is caused by an excess amount of dopamine in brain. Research has found that medication to reduce dopamine can reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Double Blind Study
Research method in which both subjects and experimenter are unaware to the anticipated results and who is in the experimental group
An internal motivation to fulfill a need or reduce the negative aspects of an unpleasant situation.
In Psychoanalytical theory, the part of the personality which maintains balance between our impulses and our conscience.
The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.
Feelings about a situation, person, or objects that involves changes in physiological arousal and cognitions.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
The awareness of and ability to manage one's emotions in a healthy and productive manner.
Subcategory of Declarative or Explicit memory where info regarding life events are stored.
Operant conditioning based on idea that a behavior is more likely to be repeated if it results in the cessation of a negative event.
Causal relationships of diseases; theories regarding how the specific disease or disorder began.
Research method using random assignment of subjects and manipulation of variables in order to determine cause and effect.
Errors in a research study due to predisposed notions or beliefs of experimenter. Eliminate by using double blind design
External Locus of Control
Rotter's idea that some individuals have the belief that environment has more control over life circumstances than the individual does.
The extent to which data collected from a sample can be generalized to the entire population.
Reduction and eventual disappearance of a learned or conditioned response after it is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus-response chain.
The desire or push to perform a certain behavior based on potential external rewards that may be received as a result.
Personality style where the individual prefers outward and group activity as opposed to inward and individual activity.
In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood.
Fixed Interval Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a specific period of time.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a specific number of responses.
The phenomenon in memory which states that we tend to remember information better if it is repeated.
Referred to as father of psychological analysis. His extensive theory of personality development (psychoanalytical theory) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought, and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious). See Psychoanalysis.
A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which client is presented with feared stimulus all at once until the associated anxiety disappears.
Part of intelligence which involves the use, as opposed to the acquisition, of info. Speed of processing. DECREASES WITH AGE
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development where thinking becomes more abstract.
Presenting info either positively or negatively in order to change the influence is has on an individual or group. Wording effects. 90% lean not 20% fat!
The psychoanalytic technique of allowing a patient to talk without direction or input in order to analyze current issues of the client.
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
The feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with not achieving a particular goal or the belief that a goal has been prematurely interrupted.
Theory arguing that aggression is the natural reaction to frustration.
School of thought popular in 19th century emphasizing conscious experiences as a precursor to behavior - Studied reasons for elements that make up consciousness
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to over estimate the internal attributes of another person's actions.
Basic intelligence of Spearman's theory. Typically compared to s which represents specific intelligences.
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid)
Major INHIBITORY neurotransmitter Too little has been associated with anxiety disorders.
Internal sense of being either male or female. Usually congruent with biological gender, but not always.
The accepted behaviors, thoughts, and emotions of a specific gender based upon the views of a particular society or culture.
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
The tendency to associate stimuli, and therefore respond similarly to, due to their closeness on some variable such as size, shape, color, or meaning.
Freud's final stage of psychosexual development where healthy sexual development is defined as attraction to same aged, opposite sexed peer.
Treatment focusing on awareness and understanding of one's feelings and restoring wholeness.
Tendency for members of a cohesive group to make more extreme decisions due to lack of opposing views. Groups of like people become more strong in their opinions
Psychotherapy conducted with at least three or four non-related individuals who are similar in some are, such as gender, age, mental illness, or presenting problem.
Tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion.
Decrease in response to a stimulus due to repetition (e.g., not hearing the ticking of a clock after getting used to it)
False perception of reality (e.g., hearing voices that aren't there or seeing people who do not exist) [auditory (hearing); visual (sight); olfactory (smell); tactile (touch); and taste].
Tendency to assign generally positive or generally negative traits to a person after observing one specific positive or negative trait, respectively. Example: believing attractive people are also intelligent and good leaders
Phenomenon that subject behavior changes by mere fact that they are being observed.
Specific field in psychology concerned with psychology's impact on health, physical well being, and illness.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Theory of Motivation which states that we must achieve lower level needs, such as food, shelter, and safety before we can achieve higher level needs, such as belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Higher Order Conditioning
Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response.
Part of limbic system. Involved more in memory, and transfer of info from short-term to long-term memory.
Tendency of body (and the mind) to natural gravitate toward a state of equilibrium or balance.
A theoretical view of human nature which stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis.
part of brain that controls autonomic nervous system, and therefore maintains body's homeostasis (controls body temperature, metabolism, and appetite. Also translates extreme emotions into physical responses.
In Psychoanalytical theory, part of personality which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger, and hunger.
Humanistic term (Rogers) representing characteristics, behaviors, emotions, and thoughts to which a person aspires.
Expressing contradictory behavior when describing or experiencing an emotion (e.g., smiling when discussing something sad; laughing when talking about the death of a loved one).
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the specific to the general.
The area or specialty in psychology focused on the application of psychological principles in the work force.
Type of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what might be happening or what might happen (estimation) in future (probability).
Substances such as spray paint, freon, and glue that produce an intoxicating effect when inhaled.
A legal term representing inability to know right from wrong or inability to understand consequences of one's actions.
Intelligence Quotient [IQ]
The scores achieved on psychological tests aimed at quantifying intellectual ability.
Internal Locus of Control
The belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances than the environment does.
A measure of trustworthiness of a sample of data. Looks at subject, testing, and environment in which data collection took place.
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude and equal intervals, but not an absolute zero.
A subjective personality and mental health assessment typically consisting of questions and answers.
Motivation or desire to do something based on enjoyment of the behavior itself rather than relying on or requiring outside reinforcements.
The process of examining one's own consciousness used by Structuralists and Functionalist researchers
Just Noticeable Difference
The smallest change in a sensory perception that is detectable 50% of the time.
A student of Freud who split from the Psychoanalytic Society because of his disagreements with Freud, especially his view of the collective unconscious.
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers.
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement but is not demonstrated until such time as reinforcement occurs.
Law of Effect
Theory proposed by Thorndike stating that those responses that are followed by a positive consequence will be repeated more frequently than those that are not.
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
A relatively permanent change in behavior due to an interaction with environment. Conditioning
Based on idea that changes in behavior result more from experience and less from our personality or how we think or feel about a situation.
Power derived through one's position, such as a police officer or elected official.
A brain system that plays a role in emotional expression, particularly in the emotional component of behavior, memory, and motivation.
A research design that assesses effects of development (maturation) by using the same subjects over an extended period of time
According to Freud, the story-like superficial content of a dream, often representing only the daily activities and little underlying unconscious material.
Changes due to natural process of aging as determined by your genetics - orderly automatic development processes
A measure of central tendency determined by adding all scores together and dividing by the number of scores. Often referred to as the statistical average.
A measure of central tendency that uses middle most occurring score in a distribution (score that occurs at exactly the 50th percentile).
Part of brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
The statistical procedure used to combine numerous and independent research results into one study. Each research study becomes one subject in the meta-analysis.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd. Edition
An Objective test utilizing 567 items which have been empirically derived to measure a variety of psychological concerns.
A research method where subject(s) is(are) observed without interruption under normal circumstances.
correlation where one two variables tend to move in the opposite direction (example: the number of pages printed and the amount of ink left in your printer are negatively correlated. The more pages printed, the less ink you have left.)
A curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores below the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores.
A chemical found in animals that plays a role in our behavior, cognition's, and emotions.
Any scale that contains no magnitude. Often thought of as name only, meaning that the variables of a _________ scale can be identified but not measured.
A subsystem within Long term memory which consists of skills we acquire through repetition and practice (e.g., dance, playing the piano, driving a car) Also called implicit or nondeclarative
neurotransmitter associated with eating and alertness. Too little has been associated with depression in addition to serotonin
A graphical interpretation of a population that is 'bell shaped' as it has the highest frequency in the middle and this frequency diminishes the farther you get from the center on either end. The mean, median, and mode are all equal in a perfect normal curve.
The scores of a sample or population that, when graphed, fall on or close to a normal curve. A normal distribution is often ideal in research because the data can then be said to have all of the characteristics of a normal curve.
The hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data. Stating opposite of what you expect to find
The understanding that objects exist even when they are not directly observed. This skill is gained at the end of the sensorimotor period.
Objective Personality Test
A generic term for psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on measurable techniques such as true false in tests such as the MMPI-2
One of the lobes of the brain. Contains the visual cortex and plays a major role ininterpretation of visual info.
Optimal Level of Arousal
Theory arguing that humans are driven to increase or decrease arousal to produce a comfortable level that is not over- nor under stimulating.
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development where primary sexual focus is on the mouth through sucking, tasting, and verbalizing.
Any scale that reflects only magnitude but does not contain equal intervals or an absolute zero
A technique used to improve memory where info is learned to the point that it can be repeated without mistake more than one time. Continuted rehearsal after material is leanred - Ebbinghaus
Anxiety disorder with periods of extreme anxiety and physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shakiness, dizziness, and racing thoughts. Initial attacks are often reported to feel like a heart attack due to the heart palpitations. No medical cause
Parasympathetic Nervous System
A subsystem of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) that returns body to homeostasis - rest and digest
One of four lobes of brain. Contains Somatosensory Cortex and is therefore involved in processing of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
Ability to perceive objects as unchanged despite the change noticed by senses (e.g., the ability to understand and see buildings as remaining the same height even though they appear larger as we get closer to them).
Person Centered Therapy
Therapeutic technique based on humanistic theory which is non-directive and empathic also called client centered.
Maladaptive and stable set of individual characteristics that cluster to form a recognized disorder.
Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.
Freud's third stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on symbolism of genitals. Oedipus conflict takes place in this stage
The perception of motion based on two or more stationary objects (e.g., perception of chaser lights brought about by different lights blinking at different times).
An intense fear of a specific object or situation - the fear must significantly restrict our way of life.
phenomenon in research where subject's beliefs about outcome can significantly effect outcome without any other intervention.
Freud's theory regarding id's desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification.
Part of brain that plays a role in the regulation of states of arousal, ESPECIALLY sleep and dreaming.
The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize (e.g., males, adults, U.S. citizens).
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
Something positive provided after a response in order to increase the probability of that response occurring in the future.
A curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores above the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores
A measurements ability to predict scores on another measurement that is related or purports to measure the same or similar construct
Negative beliefs about a person's entire character based on only one characteristic. This belief is often based on faulty info.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which a child develops objects permanency and language.
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby we transfer or project our feelings about one person onto another.
Generic term for psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on ambiguous stimuli.
Developed by Sigmund Freud, type of therapy known for long term treatment, typically several times per week, where unresolved issues from individual's childhood are analyzed and resolved.
Theory developed by Freud consisting of structural model of personality, topographical model of personality, defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual stages of development. The primary driving force behind theory is the id, ego and superego and division of consciousness into conscious mind, the pre/subconscious, and unconscious.
modern adaptation of psychoanalytic therapy which has made sometimes minor and sometimes major changes to Freud's original theories.
Break from reality, usually identified by hallucinations, delusions, and/or disorientation.
The adding of a negative stimulus in order to decrease a response (e.g., spanking a child to decrease negative behavior).
Research experiment that uses mostly correct methods but does not have randomization
A group of subjects representing the population who are selected through chance. All members of the population have an equal chance of being selected for this...
Difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution (often 1 is added to the result when computing statistics to allow for the 0.5 on either end lost due to rounding).
Rational Emotive Therapy
Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognition's control emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing how we think about things affects the way we feel and behave.
defense mechanism where one believes or states an acceptable explanation for a behavior as opposed to the real explanation.
Tendency to remember the last bit of info due to the shorter time available for forgetting.
A statistical measure of a tests consistency, or ability to result in similar scores if given repeatedly.
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
A sample or subgroup of the population that possesses the same characteristics of the population
A rule of thumb where similarity to a prototype or similar situation dictates a decision.
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our consciousness and into our unconscious.
In psychoanalysis, the client's refusal to participate in a therapeutic intervention due to underlying issues unrelated to the intervention.
Reticular Formation (Reticular Activating System)
Part of brain stem involved in arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and control of reflexes.
Binocular cue to distance referring to distance between the two images sent to the brain by our eyes. The farther apart these images, the closer the object.
a reinforcement that represents a primary enforcer such as Money. Green paper has no actual value but it represents things you can buy.
Self Serving Bias
The tendency to assign internal attributes to successes and external factors to failures.
The part of declarative memory that stores general information such as names and facts.
The first stage in Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development where a child's primary way of learning about the world is through the senses and movement.
The brief storage of information brought in through the senses; typically only lasts up to a few seconds.
A neurotransmitter involved in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior. Many antidepressants attempt to reduce the amount of __________ that is taken back (reuptake) into the sending neuron. Too little is associated with depression
Gradually molding a specific response by reinforcing responses that come close to the desired response.
Short Term Memory
Stage of memory where info is stored for up to 30 seconds prior to either being forgotten or transferred to long term memory.
degree to which a curve or distribution of scores has extreme scores atypical of majority of scores
The effect of another persons presence on one's performance. Typically we perform simple or well-learned tasks better in front of others
Social Learning Theory
Developmental theory arguing that personality is learned through the interactions with the environment. Bandura
Tendency for people to work less on a task the greater the number of people are working on that task.
The branch of psychology which focuses on society and it's impact on the individual.
Skills or behaviors deemed desirable or necessary to effectively interact with society.
Term used to describe the degree of emotional support afforded a client by friends, family, and other acquaintances.
Somatic Nervous System
Sub system of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Primary function is to regulate the actions of the skeletal muscles.
The correlation coefficient determined by comparing first half of the measurement to the second half. Measure of the internal consistency of a test or measuring device.
Tendency for previously learned info to resurface rapidly after a period of extinction.
The idea that an individual must pass through one stage of development before he or she can reach the next stage.
measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
The process of making a test or procedure the same for everyone so that results can be compared to each other.
State Dependent Memory
The theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.
The ability to tell the difference and therefore not respond to similar stimuli.
Wundt and Titchner school of thought from the 19th century focused on the gathering of psychological information through the examination of the structure of the mind.
A defense mechanism where undesired or unacceptable impulses are transformed into behaviors which are accepted by society.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Part of the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for the fight or flight phenomenon.
Space between axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another through which neurotransmitters travel.
Treatment technique where client is exposed to gradually increasing anxiety provoking stimuli while relaxing; goal is for the client to eventually confront a phobia or fear without previously associated anxiety.
A group of statistics used to determine if a significance difference exists between the means of two sets of data.
Person's typical way of responding to his or her environment. Evident in babies as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
Comparing the scores of the same measuring device administered to the same people on two different occasions to see if results repeat
Considered the central switching station of the brain because all of the body's senses (except the olfactory senses) pass through this before being relayed to the cortex.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Subjective personality test where ambiguous pictures are shown to a subject and they are asked to tell a story related to them.
Intense feelings directed toward the therapist that many clients experience in the process of therapy.
Trial and Error Learning
Learning that takes place through the application of possible solutions to a problem. Thorn
Type A Personality
A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition.
Type B Personality
A theory used to describe person with a significant number of traits focused on relaxation, lack of urgency, and normal or reduced competition.
Type I Error
The error that is committed when a true null hypothesis is rejected erroneously. The probability of a Type I Error is abbreviated with the lowercase Greek letter alpha.
Type II Error
The error that is committed when a false null hypothesis is accepted erroneously. The probability of a Type II Error is abbreviated with the uppercase Greek letter beta.
The response in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned.
The stimulus in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned.
According to Freud, the area of the psyche where unknown wishes and needs are kept that play a significant role in our conscious behavior.
Statistical technique used to determine if a test is actually measuring what it is intended to measure. Accuracy
Variable Interval Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a changing amount of time.
Variable Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a changing number of responses.
states that difference threshold, or jnd, is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being maade
Wechsler Intelligence Tests
Objective measure of intelligence created to measure both verbal and performance skills
Aphasia resulting from damage to a specific area of left temporal lobe. Affects written and spoken language.
Theory arguing that for performance to be optimal, the amount of arousal required must be optimized. Too much or too little stimulation will result in a poorer performance. Forms an inverted U.
Absence of a relationship between two or more variables as determined by a correlational statistic. Often abbreviated as 'r=0.'
a standard score that sets the mean to zero and standard deviation to one. indicates how many
a test procedure in which the identity of those receiving the intervention is concealed from both the administrators and the subjects until after the test is completed. Designed to eliminate experimenter bias
bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment - eliminate by using double blind design
Detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view - often for rare behaviors or conditions
signal detection theory
theory predicting how and when we detect presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
eye neurons that receive information from the retinal rods and cones and distribute information to the ganglion cells
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses on neurons
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
consistency between one's ideal self and actual self that results in a positive self concept - Rogers
inconsistency between one's ideal self and actual self that results in a negative self concept - Rogers
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
following an undesired response by removing a pleasant stimulus this is also called a time out and reduces the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a changing number of responses. Example gambling or sales
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses - ex. receiving $1 for every time you deliver 5 newspapers
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a changing length of time. Ex. fishing or pop quizzes
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a certain length of time Ex. quizzes every Friday
a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions and not notice info that is contradicting
the tendency for one's preexisting ideas to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Bandura's model in which cognition's, behaviors, and environmental factors both influence and are influenced by each other
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Horney's term for feelings of helplessness and insecurity as a result of being a small child in a world full of adults.
Horney's term for avoiding people as a way of coping with ones anxiety toward them (detached personality)
Horney's term for connecting positively to others and seeking acceptance. (Compliant personality)
Horney's term for seeking control and power over people as a way of coping (aggressive personality)
a trait that is so pervasive that the person is almost identified with the trait - Allport
in Gordon Allport's trait theory of personality, a major characteristic such as honesty or sensitivity that defines a person most of the time
In Allport's theory, a characteristic seen only in certain situations, such as "uncomfortable in large crowds" and "likes to drive sports cars."
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings used by functionalist and structuralist researchers
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
zone of proximal development
the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance Vygotsky term
theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development.
Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be directly seen, heard, or touched
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects - Piaget said children develop this in concrete operations
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; important emotion theory
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Principles of Psychology
1890, considered to be the first modern psychology textbook by William James
emotion theory in which the physiological reaction occurs first and then the emotion is determined
Schacter Singer Two Factor
the body changes and understanding of emotion occur but also involve a cognitive label
Theory of vision, that the eye must contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors. Suggested by Young and von Helmholtz.
Opponent Process Color Vision Theory
The representation of colours by the rate of firing of two types of neurons: red/green and yellow/blue
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the location where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Frequency Matching Theory
theory holding that the firing rate of a neuron matches the frequency of a sound wave to determine pitch
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 206)
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the curved protective layer through which light rays enters the eye. Light rays are bent here as well as in the lens.
semi circular canals
tubes in the inner ear whose fluid, when shifted by head movements, stimulates nerve cells that tell the brain about those movements
Gardner's term for distinct types of intelligence that characterize different forms of intelligent behavior
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
Created the Stanford-Binet intelligence test based on the Binet original, also did a longitudinal study of gifted children
cultural perspective which places interdependence, cooperation and social harmony take precedence over personal goals.
cultural perspective which places the individual, independence and autonomy over the group.
stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds
two word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 413)
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolation
child plays happily, child continues playing after mother leaves, child ignores mothers return
May show great upset when a parent leaves. Inconsolable when the parent returns. Desperate clinging and angry rejection during reunion
Ainsworth's method for assessing infant attachment to the mother, based on a series of brief separations and reunions with the mother in a playoom situation
how can I achieve that for which I strive, goals that can be achieved only by cooperating and working with others - used to reduce prejudice
self fulfilling prophecy
person's expectation of others evoke a response from them that confirms what he or she antcipated
English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields: heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, anthropology
reformer dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones
disorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identity
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia
a subtype of schizophrenic disorder reserved for people who have had at least one previous schizophrenic episode but are now showing an absence of prominent psychotic features; there is continuing evidence of two or more symptoms, such as marked social isolation, peculiar behaviors, blunted affect, odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which they have no interest in relationships with other people, lack emotional responsiveness
avoidant personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism - want relationships but are not good at it
paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
narcissistic personality disorder
characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration
histrionic personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
borderline personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
obsessive compulsive personality disorder
personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. workaholics, intolerant of emotional behavior of other people.
dependent personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone
schizotypal personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; AND many odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors
symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking
schizophrenic symptoms such as absence of pleasure, social withdrawal, lack of speech, and flat effect
antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin so that more serotonin is available to act on receptors in the brain
Shaking and involuntary movements side effect of treatment with early antipsychotic drugs
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
vivid memory of a certain event and the incident surrounding the event; example: 9/11, first kiss, wedding day, funeral
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
long term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
method of continued rehearsal of material after it has been memorized - a way to overcome the forgetting curve
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it - Toleman
Harlow's reseacher that determined babies needed to be held to develop normal attachment
performed famous study on conformity in which people gave an obviously incorrect answer just to conform to the group - line study
experimentor famous for research on how roles influence behavior and the power of the situation in a mock prison
Diffusion of Responsibility
reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified - occurs in stage 4 and is not remembered
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
the condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening; also known as sleepwalking - stage 4
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 300)
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
the continued use of a drug despite social, legal, or health problems; doesn't require person to be addicted
also known as addiction; pattern of drug use that leads to compulsive drug taking; experiencing tolerance, withdrawal symptoms for at least one year
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
in a language,smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a root word or a part of a word (such as a prefix or suffix)
language acquisition devise
built-in mechanism for acquiring language - Chomsky's nature theory for language development
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
controls language expression-area of frontal lobe in left hemisphere that directs muscle movements involved in speech
controls language in a brain area involved in language comprehension in the left temporal lobe
a neural structure that directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Freud's term from the Greek word for death - the death or aggressive instinct which operates invisibly
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging probable value of some event or outcome
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
Bandura's theory for how traits, cognition, behavior and environment influence personality - social cognitive theory
idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
area of psychology that uses psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes
Founded PSYCHOMETRICS and father of eugenics, used statistics to study differences in humans; Darwins cousin
Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience - used by Structuralists and Functionalists
lowering of performance on a given task in the pressence of others - usually a task that is not well reshearsed
studied the dangers of labeling of mental patients by placing pseudo patients in mental institutions
cluster of serious psychotic disorders with major disturbances in thought, mood, and or language
process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos - children align with their same sex parent to resolve the Oedipus Complex
Inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one's entire past; may be caused severe EMOTIONAL trauma.
diminishing of a conditioned response in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; when a response is no longer reinforced it becomes very weak and appear to disappear
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Founder of psychometrics; coined phrase nature v nurture; eugenics; concept of correlation - Darwin's cousin
culture fair test
test that is NOT biased with respect to factors in the environment or culture in favor of one group over another
brain scan with visual display of brain ACTIVITY or function that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Reticular Activating System
part of hind brain (brain stem) that regulates arousal, alertness, and consciousness - also screens out sensory info
method of self-observation used by Wundt in which participants report their thoughts and feelings to study consciousness
psychological disorder - inability to recall important personal events or info; usually associated with stressful events.
Freud's term for when a child during the Oedipus complex resolves the issue by acting more like and aligning with the same sex parent
DSMIV category for the rating of patients current behavior: 1= can't function and 100= functioning well
upward social comparison
compare yourself with people who do much better than you; can sometimes inspire us to do better and sometimes lower self esteem
downward social comparison
the process of comparing yourself to less fortunate others in order to feel better about yourself
operant conditioning technique of reinforcing the connection between different parts of a sequence. like learning dance moves.
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
Term for the relatively few main traits that make up personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
door in the face
persuasion technique in which person who has refused a major request, will be more likely to comply with a smaller request
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Ekman's theory of emotion: there is a distinctive facial expression associated with each basic feeling state. this is culturally universal
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve - often treated with cochlear implant
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea - often treated with hearing aids
now-discredited view that one can judge a person's character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head