# Gas Laws, States of Matter.

## 44 terms · Chemistry test.

### Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure

At constant temperature and volume, the total pressure exerted by a mix of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures.

P1+P2+P3.....

### Boyle's Law

For a given mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume varies inversely with the pressure.

P1V1=P2V2

### Gay-Lussac's Law

The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant.

P1/T1=P2/V2

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

### Ideal Gas

A gas that remains a gas at any temperature or pressure (nonexistent)

PV=nRT

### PV=nRT

Ideal Gas Law

Equal volumes of gasess at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles.

### Charle's Law

The volume of a fixed mass is directly proportional to it's Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.

Charle's Law

### Energy

The ability to do work

Joule (J)

### Kinetic Theory

Composed of particles, usually molecules or atoms which move rapidly in constant random motion, all collisions are perfectly elastic meaning all kinetic energy is transferred from one particle to another, during collisions the KE remains constant.

### Volume

The amount of space occupied by matter.

M^3

### Temperature

Measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance.

Kelvin

### Absolute zero

Temp at which all motion is said to stop, even electron's orbits. -273.

### Pressure

Force per unit area.

### Gas Pressure

Result of simultaneous collisions of billions of particles on an object.

### Vacuum

Space where no particles of matter exist.

### Atmospheric Pressure

the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, decreases with an increase in elevation.

### Barometer

Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

### Torr

Unit of pressure named after Torricelli who invented the barometer.

### mmHg

Millimeters of mercury, pressure needed to support a column of mercury 1 mm high.

### Standard Atmosphere

a unit of measurement for pressure equal to 760 mm Hg.

### Pascal

SI Unit of pressure, 1 atm= 101.3 pascal

### Liquid

Free to move, attractive forces between particles.

### Vaporization

Liquid changing to a gas below it's boiling point, cooling process.

### Vapor Pressure

Collision of particles within the walls of a sealed container.

### Dynamic Equillibrium

When the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation.

### Boiling Point

Temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external pressure.

### Normal Boiling Point

BP of any liquid at standard pressure (1atm)

### Solids

Particles tend to vibrate around fixed points, dense and incompressible.

### Melting point

Temp at which a solid turns to a liquid.

### Freezing Point

Temperature at which a liquid turns to a solid.

### Heat of Fusion

the amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase at its melting point.

### Sublimination

Change of substance from solid to directly to a gas

### Allotropes

Two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.

### Phase diagram

Gives conditions of T and P at which a substance exists in each state.T

### Triple Point

Temperature, pressure at which all 3 states can exist in equillibrium.