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esophagus

a bolus is conducted past the diaphram through the...

epiglottis

prevents food from entering the trachea

microvilli

primary site for absorption of nutrients

fats

gram for gram, provides the most energy

daily values

food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the

nutrient dense

provide more nutrients relative to kcalories

soy protein

textured vegetable protein is usually made of

nutritional genomics

the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed

ileocecal valve

what structure separates the colon from the small intestine

villi

name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine

bolus

portion of food swallowed at one time

nitrogen

element found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats

monounsaturated

fatty acid found in high amounts in olive oil

triglyceride

a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol

aspartame

sweetener should be avoided by people with PKU

glucagon

when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose

collagen

what protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing

35

the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake

kefir

contains live bacterial organisms

limiting amino acid

essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place

corn oil

major source of polyunsaturated fat

fibers

cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin

drawback of olestra consumption

inhibits absorption of vitamin E

cholesterol

the major sterol in the diet

double bonds

lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

whey protein

it is a waste product of cheese production

insulin

lowers blood glucose levels

antibodies

inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses

fat

protect vital organs against shock.

free radical

a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

protein

the body's need for water increases on a diet high in

animal fats

cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen

lactate

when a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more

antioxidants

the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an

oxygen

an aerobic reaction is one that requires

3

number of vitamin A are active in the body

ketones

condensation of acetyl CoA molecule forms

linolenic acid

can not be formed from pyruvate in human beings

liver

tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A

vitamin k

It participates in synthesis of bone proteins

coenzyme

an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme

increased thirst

most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet

fortified milk

most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet

niacin

a low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of

vegetable oil

major sources of vitamin E in the diet

folate

research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

vitamin a

it assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur

ultraviolet light

riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

heat

food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as

glycogen

most depleted in the body

iodine

nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism

chloride

helps maintain gastric acidity

30-40

normally begin to lose bone mass at age

vitamin c

enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract

foods with vitamin c

enhance iron absorption

calcium carbonate

among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense

hyponatremia

what adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity

30

a person's highest bone density is achieved by around age

public water

most reliable source of dietary fluoride

hemoglobin

iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream

interstitutial fluid

water that resides between cells is known as

parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

regulates the level of calcium in the blood

water

body's most indispensable nutrient

transferrin

protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues

65

relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age

trimesters

gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

vitamin d

breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except

artificial sweeteners

all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except

reduced quantity of milk

chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother

calcium and iron

during pregnancy these show a dramatic increase in absorption

casein

a child with a true allergy to milk is actually allergic to the milk's

eggs peanuts and milk

most often the cause of allergies

wic

a food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

example

single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

vitmain d

what vitamin does skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced

preeclampsia

a large weight gain over a short time is a sign of

anemia

a child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of

beikost

term that describes any nonmilk food offered to an infant

vitamin a and c

according to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label

milk products and plant foods

allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian

mouth

what organ does the digestion process begin

peristalsis

consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles

emulsifies fats

function of bile

lymphatic

immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats

probiotics

living bacteria found in yogurt are known as

complex carbohydrate

what type of nutrient is starch

lactose

principle carbohydrate of milk

fatty acids and glycerol

chemical composition of fats

monounsaturated

type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil

coconut oil

the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form

linolenic acid

the oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed

denaturation

what process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat

amino acid pool

a mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake

complementary protein nutrition

a strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids

low weight for height

acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by

metabolism

describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells

glucose to pyruvate

glycolysis is the conversion of

removal of its amino group

after digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to

protein

the body's need for water increases on a diet high in

water and carbon dioxide

in addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates

vitamin a

vitamin would be removed in the production of skim milk

vitamin a

cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of

ariboflavinosis

the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

riboflavin

milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of what

vitamin b6

what vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism

vitamin b12

pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin c

assist in collagen formation

broccoli

provides ample amounts of vitamin C

keratinization

deficiency of vitamin A

d

a child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin

free radical

a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

vitamin k

vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns

processed foods

greatest single source of sodium in the diet

calcium

99% of this provides rigidity for the bones and teeth

lactose

calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of

green vegetables

good sources of dietary calcium

phosphorus

minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems

iodine

mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine

fatty acids

cannot be used to make body proteins

amino acids

can be converted to glucose

protein

zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of

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