Chapter 16 Conquest of the West

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Although the image of the nineteenth century West is of thinly populated, wide open spaces, by the late 1870's___________ already had almost 250,000 inhabitants.

San Francisco

In 1882 Congress passed a law in effect stopped immigration from

China

Which of the following statements about immigrants in the West in the late 1800's is false

Although a few did live in the West, Irish and German immigrants almost exclusively immigrated to Eastern states.

On the eve of the Civil War, the American Indians in the West

Still occupied about 50 percent of the United States.

_________were/was essential to the culture, religion, and sustenance of the Plains Indians.

Bison

The United States treated each tribe

as a separate sovereign nation.

In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on a divide-and-conquer strategy. This was known as the "________" policy.

Concentration.

In its treaties with Native Americans, the American government generally

showed little interest in honoring them.

One of the worst massacres committed by white troops in the Indian Wars occurred in 1864 at

Sand Creek.

In 1867, the government tried a new strategy toward the Plains Indians

forcing the reservation Native Americans to become farmers like other Americans.

One of the reasons that a relative handful of Indians could hold off the battle-hardened Civil War veterans of the U.S. Army was because

Indians were superb guerrilla warriors- the best cavalry soldiers in the world.

General George A. Custer's greatest mistake at Little Bighorn was that he

Grossly underestimated the number of Indians.

The two reasons why fighting on the Plains slackened after Custer's 1876 defeat are

the building of the transcontinental railroad and the destruction of the buffalo.

The ability of the Plains Indians to resist white expansion was severely damaged by the

Destruction of buffalo.

In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act, which was intended to

persuade Indians to abandon their traditional tribal cultures.

Under the ___________, Indians who accepted land allotments , lived "separate from any tribe," and "adopted the habits of civilized life" were allowed to become U.S. citizens.

Dawes Severalty Act.

Partly as a result of the Ghost Dance Movement, the army killed some 150 Teton Sioux at ____________ in________________.

Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

In comparison to its human resources, the natural resources of the nation in the late nineteenth century were

Even more ruthlessly and thoughtlessly exploited.

Probably the most famous of all the precious metal strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and the Big Bonanza, was

Virginia City, Nevada.

One result of the gold and silver rushes of the late nineteenth century was

an improved financial position for America in world trade.

Roughing it (1872) by Mark Twain provides us with our most famous pictures of the

mining frontier.

The Homestead Act of 1862

failed to fill the West with 160-acre family farms because most landless Americans were simply too poor to become farmers.

The gigantic corporation-controlled farms that were created to take advantage of the newly available acreage in the South and West were known as

bonanza farms.

In the decades following the Civil War, which area of the country became known as the "breadbasket" of America?

the Plains states west of the Mississippi

Which of the following is true of the frontier farmers of the 1870's and 1880's?

They farmed the land with the little knowledge or concern for preventing erosion or preserving fertility.

The first federal land grant to a railroad was allotted in 1850 to the

Illinois Central

The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 set the pattern for government land grants by giving the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads

five square miles of public land on each side of their right-of- way for every mile of track laid.

Transcontinental railroads used their zone of "indemnity" lands to prevent

homesteading along the railroad

The ability to finance the building of the railroad with money received from federal land grants

meant that the railway operators could pay their workers much higher average wages.

The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the

Central Pacific and the Union Pacific

The only transcontinental railroad built without land grants was the

Great Northern.

Cattle herd were driven across the unsettled grasslands of the ______________Trail on their way to the railroad at Abilene, Kansas.

Chisholm.

The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the northern plains led to the development of

open-range ranching.

Open-range ranching in the late nineteenth century required

control of a stable water supply.

_____________ was a former slave who became famous as the cowboy nicknamed "Deadwood Dick"

Nat Love

What accounted for the profitability of open-range ranching?

high demand and cheap transportation

The future director of the United States Geological Service, ___________, advocated a system for dealing with the semiarid condition of western lands.

John Wesley Powell

Major John Wesley Powell belied that western lands should be divided into three classes. Which of the following is NOT one of these classes?

prairie land

Barbed wire was invented by

Joseph F. Glidden

Barbed wire destroyed the open-range cattle industry because it

prevented the free movement of cattle

Open-range cattle raising was virtually ended by the

combination of the drought of 1886 and the blizzards of 1886-1887

The "conquest of the frontier" was

a way to evade the destructive consequences of national policies by making them seem to be an expression of human progress.

By the end of the nineteenth century, U.S. industrial capacity

dwarfed both Great Britain's and Germany's

In the 25 years after the civil war, railroads

were probably the most significant element in American economic development.

The emphasis in railroad construction after 1865 was on

organizing integrated systems

In the late nineteenth century "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized

complex, transcontinental railroad lines.

Following the Civil War, most southern railroad systems were

controlled by Northern capitalists

American land-grant railroads in the late nineteenth century

sent agents overseas to recruit likely settlers and purchasers of railroad land

After the railroads, the second most important development in America's industrial advance in the late nineteenth century was the transformation of

iron manufacturing

The ____________process directed a steam of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the prices of steel.

Bessemer

Technological changes in the petroleum industry in the late nineteenth century

occurred rapidly and put a premium on refining efficiency

Known as the "wizard of Menlo Park," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was

Thomas A. Edison

Which of the following interests of Alexander Graham Bell's led to the invention of the telephone?

deaf education

What was the relationship between competition and monopoly in American industry during the post- Civil War era?

deflation combined with fierce competition to cause the expansion to lead to concentration

From 1873 to 1893, the economy was characterized by

intense competition for markets

Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines by

giving them rebates

As a result of the intense competition among railroads,

the railroads were unstable financially and vulnerable to any downturn in the business cycle.

The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were

steel corporations.

Andrew Carnegie dominated the___________industry

steel

Andrew Carnegie was one of the first great tycoons to realize the importance of

developing technological improvements

When J.P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he

formed the first billion-dollar corporation.

By the middle of the 1800's ___________monopolized the oil industry in the United States

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller's success was due primarily to his

bold planning and risk-taking.

The theory of evolution by natural selection, which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others, was the work of

Charles Darwin

In general, as industry expanded

Americans saw economic regulation as a way to release human energy and increase the area in which business could freely operate.

a prominent advocate of social darwinism,William Graham Sumner was identified with the phrase

it's root hog ,or die

most americans reacted to the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations and the increasing complexity of economic relations by

fearing monopolistic power,yet being greedy for all the new goods and services

henry George, author of progress and poverty, advocated

laissez-faire economics

Henry George,Edward Bellamy,and Henry Demarest Lloyd wer all late nineteenth century

radical reformers

the novelist who described america evolving into and ideal socialist state was

Edward Bellamy

which of the following compared nineteenth century society to a stagecoach in which the favored few rode in the comfort while the masses pulled them along life's route

Edward Bellamy

in the cooperative commonwealth, Laurence Gronlund

provided the first serious attempt to explain the ideas of karl marx to americans

the national grange of the patrons of the husbandry was founded in 1867 by

oliver h kelley

granger controlled legislature attempted to

regulate railroad rates

the supreme court decision in the wabash case concerned

early railroad regulation

the federal regulatory board,established in 1887 by congress to supervise the affairs of railroads ,investigate complaints, and issue "cease and desist" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the

interstate commerce commission

the creation of interstate commerce commission in 1887

challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire

in 1890,congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of the interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the.....act

sherman antirust

the sherman antirust act was drastically limited by the supreme court in

united states v E.C.knight company

"doubtless the power to the control the manufacture of a given thing involves , in a certain sense ,the control of its disposition .... the exercise of that power may result in bringing the operation of commerce into play , it does not control it,and affects its only incidentally and indirectly " the source of this quote is

united states v.E.C.Knight company

the first union to welcome blacks,women and immigrants into its rank was

Knights of labor

as a result of the .... membership in the knights of labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism

Haymarket square riot

established in the 1886 the .... was the prime example of "bread and butter" unionism

american federation of labor

the dramatic labor troubles of 1877 were

more violent and destructive than any previous strike in america

the leader of the american railway union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the pullman palace car company was

Eugene Debs

president cleveland intervened in the pullman strike on the pretext that

that the mail had to be delivered

in the late nineteenth century wealth,power,and influence were

increasingly concentrated among the largest financiers

as a result of the centralization and the concentration of the industry in the late nineteenth century

efficiency increased in industries where close coordination and output, distribution and sales was important

in the late 1800's, the courts seemed most concerned with protecting

the intrest of the rich and powerful

which of the following described most middle class families of the late nineteenth century

they lost some of the reforming zeal and moral fervor they typically had before the civil war

in the Thorstein veblen's theory of leisure class he

theorized that middle class consumption was done mainly for superficial purposes

in general .... workers were usually well off as a result of late nineteenth century industrialization

skilled industrial

as a result of the of the late nineteenth century industrial development

personal contact between employer tended to disappear

in the new types of work women found in the late nineteenth century,they

were often hired as salespersons in department stores because managers considered them easier to control than men

in the late nineteenth century ,educated middle class women dominated the new profession of

nursing

early social workers who visited working class homes in the late nineteenth century discovered

considerable differences in the standard living among families in the same occupation

which of the following statements about society in the late 1800's is true

the gap between rich and poor was growing

census records reveal that the average urban american of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

experienced considerable geographical mobility

after 1870, american public education

changed steadily in response to the many social and economic changes of the era

in the late 1800s secondary education

was accessible to those with special abilities or from well off families

real life rag to riches experiences ,like those of Andrew carnegie ,were

rare exceptions

the main reason for migration to united states during the late nineteenth century was the

collapse of the peasant economy in northern Europe

before 1882, american restricted .... from immigration to the united states

almost no one

beging in the 1800's , the source of american immigration shifted to new immigrants from

southern and eastern Europe

Both the new immigrants of the 1800's and the old irish immigrants of the 1840's were mostly

peasants

the so called"birds of passage " during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were

a minority of all who entered the us

One of the causes which eventually led to restrictions on immigration was the

social Darwinists' fears that immigrants would undermine American "racial purity"

Criticisms of immigrants as "longhaired, wild-eyed, bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches" and as "Europe's human and inhuman rubbish" were characteristic of

nativists

The new nativism of the late nineteenth century was exemplified by the

American Protective Association

Although there were additional factors as well , by the final decades of the nineteenth century the chief cause of urban growth was

the expansion of industry

The "new" immigrants from eastern and southern Europe

settled in ethnic neighborhoods in the urban centers

The urban ethnic neighborhoods of the late nineteenth century were

crowded and unhealthy

What city was a pioneer in regulating city house construction and sanitation?

New York

A residential apartment building , common in New York in the late 1800's, that was built on a tiny lot without consideration of proper lighting and ventilation was known as?

tenement

Urban transportation was revolutionized and urban development was redirected in the 1880's by

electric trolleys

The first electric trolley car line in America was installed by Frank J. Sprague in

Richmond, Virginia

As a result of the streetcar, American cities

expanded their geographical area enormously as the upper and middle classes fled city centers

Late nineteenth-century spectator sports were notable for their

mixture of upper- and working-class interests.

In 1891, James Naismith invented the game of

basketball

Walter Camp played a major role in establishing

football as major sport

How did Roman Catholic Church leaders respond to the problems of industrialism?

They tended to see vice as a personal matter and poverty as an act of God.

The lay evangelist of the late nineteenth century who conducted vigorous campaigns to convince the poor to abandon their sinful ways was

Dwight L. Moody

a church should focus on improving the spiritual lives of the poor by conducting massive religious revivals

god would provide for the faithful

the most influential preacher of the social gospel movement

washington gladden

characters asked themselves " what would jesus do?" in charles M sheldon best selling social gospel novel called

in his steps

the community centers started by idealistic young people to guide and help urban poor were

settlement houses

the first example of a settlement house in america was established in new york by

dr stanton coit

the founder of chicago's hull house was

jane adams

settlement houses were

funded by private beneficence but in need of state support

privately funded and most administrators did not want to deal with the regulations of state support

they continued to be optimistic and uncritical admirers of american civilization

the response of american intellectuals such as walt witman and henry adams to the new industrial civilization was to

denounce it as leading to the worship of money and material success

in the late nineteenth century , the way americans thought was transformed by

industrialization

in 1870's most american colleges were

beging to establish graduate programs based on the model of german universities

in 1869, Harvard introduced the .... system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the gilded age

elective

university president charles w eliot pioneered the

introduction of the elective system

johns Hopkins became the leader in graduate education under the presidency of

Daniel Ciot Gilam

the morill act land grant university system

provided land deeds to establish universities

vassar college holds the distinction of

being the first college for women

because the increase in both the number of college graduates and the influence of the alumni ,in the late nineteenth century american higher education

was increasingly focussed on social activities ,fraternities, and organized athletics with winning teams

under the influence of charles darwin ,the new social sciences turned much of thier energy to studying the

development of the institutions and their interactions with each other

members of the institutionalist school of economics such as richard t ely and jhon r commons thought that

economic problems should be totally divorced from moral concerns

the most influential social darwinist was the english thinker

Herbert Spencer

The American disciple of Herbert Spencer, Edward L. Youmans, believed that society was

changed only by the force of evolution, which moved with cosmic slowness.

According to German educator John Friedrich Herbart, good teaching called for

psychological insight and imagination

The educator John Dewey insisted that

education was the fundamental method of social progress.

"Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform" This statement is typical of the beliefs of

John Dewey

The leader of what was called progressive education was

Johann F. Herbart

The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. on evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth-century

jurisprudence

The late-nineteenth-century theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy

argued that the roots of democracy and the rule of law were found in the ancient tribes of northern Europe.

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