1. the USSR guilty of violating Yalta Agreements (iron curtain in E. Eu., didn't allow self determination) 2. disagrees with SU human rights violations (purges kill 20 mill)
1. capitalists can't be trusted (history of destroying SU and commi) 2. thought D-day was postponed to wipe out SU
Capitalist (free market, free enterprise)
Socialist (gov't owns all, everything established by gov't)
Democracy (gov't by the people for the people, free votes)
Totalitarianism (dictatorship, Y/N votes for Kruchev only)
World View US
Free trade, free market
World View USSR
Spheres of influence (divide up world)
when the SU used the nuclear bomb a growing arms race began between the SU and US. Both sides believed that an arsenal of nuclear weapons would prevent war
US foreign policy of stopping the spread of communism
Secretary of state. Blamed Stalin for being irrational.
Policy providing aid to Greece(home of democracy) and Turkey (gateway to M.E. oil and needed to keep Germany from the passage) to contain communism. Announces US will defend the world and protect democracy.
$13 bill. in aid to countries who request it and allow US officials in to oversee use of $. Built E. EU and opened up trade. SU didn't want officials, so no $.
A military alliance set up during peace times. Complete change in foreign policy. Security to protect E. EU.
for 11 months US and Br. flew supplies into W Berlin during a Soviet blockade
Leader of Chinese Nationalist party.Supported by the US. Chinese dislike him for internal corruption, failing to protect from Jap, and paying the rich. Forced to flee to Taiwan.
Where Chiang Kai-shek is forced to flee to. Non-commi China. Recognized by US as legit China.
Leader of Commi. Party. Did better in WWII and promised land reform, FDR blamed for commi China.
Temporarily divided at 38th parallel. US gets S. SU gets N (wanted a millitary commi leader).
Kim Il Sung
Leader of N. Attacks S. when US leaves. conquered all but Pusan
President of S. Asks UN for help when N. invades. Requested granted bec. SU boycott the meeting.
Sent with peace keeping troops to get N. Koreans out of S. Goes through Inchon and liberates S. capitol. He wanted to go beyond limited war. Met with Truman at Wake Island, he said no. Ceasefire since '53.
Truman's Fair Deal
GI Bill of Rights. Desegregate the military. Supported financial compensation for relocation ($1 lost, gain $.05, recognized loss). Supported unions.
GI Bill of Rights
Part of Truman Fair Deal.Truman concerned about changes when soldiers returned (housing, families, job availability). Provided scholarships for college education (opportunity to veterans, job market didn't flood). Provided low cost loans to buy houses.
Taft Hartley Act
Didn't allow for union strikes. Congress overrode Truman's veto and passed the act even with poor working conditions and wages and goods shortages.
Thomas Dewey v. Truman. All polls predicted Truman would lose, surprisingly he won. Unpopular in office, now top 10.
Whistle Stop Campaign
Truman took his campaign to the common man. "One thing congress has done?"
Advised not to speak too much. Exit polls(taken from big cities) said he would win.
Red Scare Returns
Paranoia begins in 40s. Fascism defeated. Communism and Stalin are still here. SU gets atomic bomb (espionage?!). American intellectuals join commi party?!
House Un-American Committee (HUAC)
Nixon is chairman. Investigate everyone (especially Hollywood).
Time Magazine editor who admitted spying for Soviet Union before HUAC. He also accused Alger Hiss and others of giving away government secrets to Russia.
Accused of being commi by Chambers. Pumpkin with documents story. Strong evidence he was a commi (attended meetings in Harvard), but denied it all. 7 years jail for purgery.
Truman's attempt to show he's tough on commi. If you were proved commi, you could be easily fired.
Commi party members found guilty of atomic espionage. Hired cheap lawyer. Worth death penalty?
Ms. Rosenberg's bro. Worked in a NM atomic plant. Admits to being a commi. and says Mr. R told him to draw a secret lens.
Demagogue. Was losing and used the Red Scare to get attention. Claimed to have a list of 205 card holding commis. People believed him, was a one man wrecking crew. didn't have proof.
Eisenhower (Ike) . People liked his work in D-day. Older from Mid. W. Everyone knew him. VP-Nixon (Ike didn't really like).
VP for 1952 elections. Disliked by Ike. Young. OC, CA. Allegedly able to be bribed. Name cleared through TV (first time politics is on TV). Got letters saying to stay on ballot.
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of Defense. Massive Retaliation. Brinkmanship. Military make up. Domino Theory.
they let the Soviet Union know that if they threatened any U.S. interest, the U.S. is willing to use muclear weapons to deal with them.
US hoped SU would back down after weapons threat, they didn't , arms race.
New military make up
Size of army decreased. Airforce increased. Development of marines.
1 country will affect another, then everyone will be commi!
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of fr. Indo China (Vietnam) Hated Fr. Charismatic. Wants self determination after the war, but Truman can't go against Fr. Gets N Vietnam when it's split.
The Nationalist party. Revolutionary War against Fr. (1945-1954)
Dien Bien Phu
1954 Viet Minh win, Fr leave but don't want Minh to rule all. Vietnam split for 2 years. Minh gets N. Diem gets S.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Got S Vietnam after the split. Allies hoped he would be able to control. Calls off elections and tries to control all.
SE. Asia Treaty Organization. Collective military security. Ike fears spread of commi. Same as NATO. Not much action in Vietnam
1956 Gamal Nasser (Egypt) nationalizes canal. Built by Br. Fr. Israel, so they attack. Ike worried Egypt would ally with SU and used UN to stop the attack. Made compromise with Egypt to share.
Mohammad Mossedegh wanted to nationalize oil rigs in Iran. CIA staged a coup and overthrew Mossedegh. US puts Shah in power, but Iranians don't like his Westernization.
Jacabo Arbenz wanted to seize and nationalize the United Fruit Company so the CIA overthrew him.
Betitzo in cahoots with the Mafia (US hates the corruption). Fidel Castro takes over (Us kind of happy). Fidel announces he's Marxist and nationalizes everything! A hero to the poor, rich go to Fl.