Soc 001 Final Exam Chapter 13

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Education and Religion

Credential Society

the use of diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work

Cultural Transmission of Values

The process of transmitting values from one group to another; often used in reference to how cultural traits are transmitted across generations & in education, the ways in which schools transmit a society's values

Social Placement (gatekeeping)

open the doors of opportunity for some and close them to others

Mainstreaming

Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services

Religion

a system of beliefs and practices by means of which a group of people, struggle with the ultimate problem of human life

Sacred

made or declared or believed to be holy

Profane

not sacred or concerned with religion

Rituals

another name for ceremonies or rites

Church

a place for public (especially Christian) worship

Religious Experiences

subjective experience of being in contact with the divine or spiritual

Protestant Ethic

way of life based on Biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God

Spirit of Capitalism

According to Weber, a nonreligious version of the Protestant ethic; values favoring hard work, thrift, and the importance of economic success

Denomination

one or 2 religious organizations that claim the allegiance of a substantial part of the population (Catholic and Protestant)

Cults

groups of people who share intense admiration or adoration of a particular person or principle

Sects

formally organized body that has split from a denomination, get into religion through conversion, not born into the religion

Charismatic Leaders

Leaders who are enthusiastic, committed, and self-confident; who tend to talk about the importance of group goals at a broad level; and who make personal sacrifices for the group, inspires the group

Ecclesias

claims membership of almost everyone in a society

How did credentialism develop?

large enormous, societies lack the personal knowledge common to smaller groups

How does education compare among the Most Industrialized, Industrializing, and Least Industrialized Nations?

In general, formal education reflects a nation's economy. Consequently, education is extensive in the Most Industrialized Nations, undergoing vat change in the Industrializing Nations, and spotty in the Least industrialized Nations.

What is the functionalist perspective on education?

Among the functions of education are the teaching of knowledge and skills, providing credential, cultural transmission of values, social integration, social placement, and mainstreaming. Functionalists also not that education has replaced some traditional family functions.

What is the conflict theorists perspective on education?

education reproduces the social class structure, that is through such mechanisms as unequal funding and operating different schools for the elite and for the masses, education perpetuates a society's basic social inequalities from one generation to the next

What is the symbolic interactionist perspective on education?

they focus on face-to-face interactions, in examining what occurs in the classroom they have found that student performance tends to conform to teacher expectations, weather they are high or low

What are the chief problems that face US education?

the mediocracy, grade inflation, social promotion, functional illiteracy, faked data reported by school administrators, and violence

Grade Inflation

higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning

Social Promotion

The practice of promoting students from one grade to the next automatically, regardless of their school performance (No Child Left Behind)

Functional Illiteracy

a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living

Education

-formal or informal transmission of knowledge and skills
-Schooling: formal instruction in the classroom (elementary, middle, high school, college)

Basic Functions of Schools

-Instruction: Teach how to read, etc.

-Socialization: how to get along with others; manners, etc)

-Custody and Control: Keep kids busy during the day

-Certification: get a degree

-Selection: pick people for occupations (doctor, lawyer)

Conflict of Education

-Education system used by elites to maintain social positions

-Teach people that inequality is justified
*Tracking (assign kids to classes based on ability)
*If you don't do well it is always you own fault

-Taught American Values
*a sanitized view of the history of the U.S.

Factors that Contribute to Success

-Cultural Capital:
Social assets such as familiarity and identification with elite suture and knowledge of manners, dress, etc.

-Human Capital:
Investing in yourself (a college education)

-Social Capital:
*norms that promotes cooperation between two or more individuals
*norm of reciprocity between two friends
*how to work in groups

self-fulling prophecy

a false assumption of something that is going to happen but which then comes true simply because it was predicted

Basic Functions of Religion (Durkheim)

-Functions as a form of social cement
-Provides emotional support
-Reinforces norms of societies
-Helps people through major crisis of life.

Nones

no stated religious preference, atheist, or agnostic

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