the use of diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work
Cultural Transmission of Values
The process of transmitting values from one group to another; often used in reference to how cultural traits are transmitted across generations & in education, the ways in which schools transmit a society's values
Social Placement (gatekeeping)
open the doors of opportunity for some and close them to others
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
a system of beliefs and practices by means of which a group of people, struggle with the ultimate problem of human life
made or declared or believed to be holy
not sacred or concerned with religion
another name for ceremonies or rites
a place for public (especially Christian) worship
subjective experience of being in contact with the divine or spiritual
way of life based on Biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God
Spirit of Capitalism
According to Weber, a nonreligious version of the Protestant ethic; values favoring hard work, thrift, and the importance of economic success
one or 2 religious organizations that claim the allegiance of a substantial part of the population (Catholic and Protestant)
groups of people who share intense admiration or adoration of a particular person or principle
formally organized body that has split from a denomination, get into religion through conversion, not born into the religion
Leaders who are enthusiastic, committed, and self-confident; who tend to talk about the importance of group goals at a broad level; and who make personal sacrifices for the group, inspires the group
claims membership of almost everyone in a society
How did credentialism develop?
large enormous, societies lack the personal knowledge common to smaller groups
How does education compare among the Most Industrialized, Industrializing, and Least Industrialized Nations?
In general, formal education reflects a nation's economy. Consequently, education is extensive in the Most Industrialized Nations, undergoing vat change in the Industrializing Nations, and spotty in the Least industrialized Nations.
What is the functionalist perspective on education?
Among the functions of education are the teaching of knowledge and skills, providing credential, cultural transmission of values, social integration, social placement, and mainstreaming. Functionalists also not that education has replaced some traditional family functions.
What is the conflict theorists perspective on education?
education reproduces the social class structure, that is through such mechanisms as unequal funding and operating different schools for the elite and for the masses, education perpetuates a society's basic social inequalities from one generation to the next
What is the symbolic interactionist perspective on education?
they focus on face-to-face interactions, in examining what occurs in the classroom they have found that student performance tends to conform to teacher expectations, weather they are high or low
What are the chief problems that face US education?
the mediocracy, grade inflation, social promotion, functional illiteracy, faked data reported by school administrators, and violence
higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning
The practice of promoting students from one grade to the next automatically, regardless of their school performance (No Child Left Behind)
a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living
-formal or informal transmission of knowledge and skills
-Schooling: formal instruction in the classroom (elementary, middle, high school, college)
Basic Functions of Schools
-Instruction: Teach how to read, etc.
-Socialization: how to get along with others; manners, etc)
-Custody and Control: Keep kids busy during the day
-Certification: get a degree
-Selection: pick people for occupations (doctor, lawyer)
Conflict of Education
-Education system used by elites to maintain social positions
-Teach people that inequality is justified
*Tracking (assign kids to classes based on ability)
*If you don't do well it is always you own fault
-Taught American Values
*a sanitized view of the history of the U.S.
Factors that Contribute to Success
Social assets such as familiarity and identification with elite suture and knowledge of manners, dress, etc.
Investing in yourself (a college education)
*norms that promotes cooperation between two or more individuals
*norm of reciprocity between two friends
*how to work in groups
a false assumption of something that is going to happen but which then comes true simply because it was predicted
Basic Functions of Religion (Durkheim)
-Functions as a form of social cement
-Provides emotional support
-Reinforces norms of societies
-Helps people through major crisis of life.
no stated religious preference, atheist, or agnostic