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In general, an important foundation of humor is

incongruity--differences in meaning

Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as

a primary group

Which concept is used to designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact?

social construction of reality

The importance of Alfred Kinsey's research on sexuality in the United States was

making sexuality a focus of scientific study, showing that people were less conventional than most of society thought, and encouraging a greater openness toward sexuality

The sexual counterrevolution had begun in the United States by

1980

What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?

group think

Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient , but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?

organizations create alienation

Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?

authoritarian leadership

Most women take the family name of a man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey

power over others

The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves in order to keep going is called bureaucratic

inertia

Which type of social group commands a member's esteem and loyalty?

an in-group

Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?

heterosexism

The Thomas theorem states that

situations defined as real are real in their consequences

Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?

the structural-functional approach

Which theoretical approach points to the ways which sexuality is linked to social inequality?

the social-conflict approach

Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds?

status

Sociologist use what concept to refer to behavior that people expect from someone who holds a particular status?

role

Based on what you know about the history of human sexuality, once society gains birth control technology

social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive

Which statements correctly reflects Simmel's interpretation of the dyad?

dyads are less stable than groups with many members

If you often had the feeling of being "trapped in the wrong body", you might be

a transsexual

In general, we see ----- as a means to an end; we see ----- as an end in itself.

a secondary group; a primary group

Max Weber noted many traits of bureaucracy. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

favoring family members over strangers

According to Erving Goffman, people usually make efforts to ----- their intentions.

idealize

Think about the process of McDonaldization. Looking at the list below, which one of the traits is NOT linked to McDonaldization?

creativity

Which of the following likely plays a part of the reality we construct through social interactions?

social class background, the country we live in, and our ethnicity

Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing

role conflict

Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?

master status

What does the term "presentation of self" mean?

efforts to create impressions in the minds of others

A secondary group is a social group that

is impersonal and engages in some specific activity

In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to "save face" or avoid embarrassment is

tact

Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator" showed

people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals

What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntary assumed later in life?

ascribed status

Which concept refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?

expressive leadership

Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is called

asexuality

Which types of formal organization is sometimes called a "voluntary association"?

normative organizations

Soloman Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed that

group membership has the power to generate conformity

When did the sexual revolution begin?

It began in the 1940s and then grew quickly in the late 1960s

If you were teaching a class about the symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality, on which of the following topics would you likely focus?

how individuals in various settings engage in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity

The text suggests that the MOST widely divisive issue regarding sexuality in the United States in recent years has been

abortion

During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being

more collective in their orientation

Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?

in most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker

Research suggest that

women "read" men better than men "read" women

The majority of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is rooted in

human biology, although social experience plays some role

The success story of the McDonald's organization explains

that the organizational principles of McDonald's have come to dominate our social life

Which sociologist developed the approach called dramaturgical analysis?

Erving Goffman

Which type of formal organization do people join in order to obtain money and other material?

utilitarian organization

Which of the following is every society's MOST important primary group?

the family

Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?

sex

Which concept referes to genitals that distinguish females and males?

primary sex characteristics

Which of the following concepts refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person?

sexual orientation

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