PBHS - AP Government - Unit 6

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Political party:

a political organization that hopes to acquire political power in the government. Overall a political party has similar ideologies, visions, beliefs, and interests.

First two political parties:

Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party.

First two political parties: Why were they created?:

Federalist Party - created by Alexander Hamilton & John Adams, wanted a strong central government, believed in a loose construction & the implied powers of the elastic clause.
Democratic Republicans - created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, wanted
strong states rights & limits on the power of the federal government, believed the national government only possessed the powers specifically delegated to it in the Constitution.

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: George Washington - (Late 1700's)

No Party

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Alexander Hamilton - (Late 1700's)

Federalist

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: John Adams - (Late 1700's & Early 1800's)

Federalist

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: John Marshall - (Late 1700's & Early 1800's)

Federalist

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Thomas Jefferson - (Late 1700's & Early 1800's)

Democratic-Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: James Madison - (Late 1700's & Early 1800's)

Democratic-Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Andrew Jackson - (1820's & 1830's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Abraham Lincoln - (1850's & 1860's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: William Jennings Bryan - (1890's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Theodore Roosevelt - (Late 1800's to 1912)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Herbert Hoover - (1920's & early 1930's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Franklin Delano Roosevelt - (1930's & 1940's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Dwight D. Eisenhower - (1950's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Richard Nixon - (1950's to 1970's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: John F. Kennedy - (1960's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Lyndon Baines Johnson - (1960's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Henry Ford - (1970's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Jimmy Carter - (1970's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Ronald Reagan - (1980's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: George H. W. Bush - (1980's & 1990's)

Republican

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: Bill Clinton - (1990's)

Democratic

Identify the political party of the following political leaders: George W. Bush - (2000's)

Republican

The New Deal

a series of programs FDR began between 1933 and 1938. The goal was to provide relief, reform, and recovery to the weakened economy and the people during the Great Depression.

The New Deal: Who did it help?

helped people of all ages and all socio-economic status. It particularly tried to help the everyday common man. Its intent was not to make the rich people richer during such hard times.

The New Deal: Who didn't like it & why?

Both the Republicans and business owners/leaders did not like it. Both thought the programs were too socialistic. The Republicans thought it went too far and placed too many restrictions on businesses

Famous Third Parties

the Progressive Party, the Populist Party, the Independent Party, and the Green Party

"Contract with America"

Document signed in 1994 by three hundred and sixty seven Republican candidates. This document outlined the reforms the Conservative
Republicans promised to pass on the first day of the new Congress, along with ten bills they agreed would be brought to be voted on within the first hundred days of the new Republican controlled House. This document was made up by Representatives Newt Gingrich and Richard Armey, since they both believed America needed its public policy and Congress reshaped.

Party in the Electorate

The citizens that are registered for a specific political party. Registration to a political party is not legally binding and there is no fee. Members are
not required to participate in campaigns and are required to vote for their own party's candidates.

Party Organization

There are three different levels to party organization: National Party organization, State Party Organization, and the Local Party Organization. Each level is loosely tied together. Although this is a hierarchical system, the National Party has little control over the other levels.

National Committee

One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from the states and territories. It makes rules; organizes the conventions; creates the party's platform; raises and disperses money; provides assistance to candidates in the form of campaign strategy, money, voter identification, and GOTV.

Party Platforms

A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength (it is the best formal statement of what a party believes in)

Planks

Where each candidate stands on issues.

Party in Government

Government officials who are members of a party. They may vote in whatever direction they choose, despite their party, because they are not bound to the party.

Linkage Institutions

The channels or access points through which the issues and people's policy preferences get on the governments policy agenda. (They connect the people with the government) Ex. Mass media, elections, political parties and interest groups are the four main linkage institutions.

Party Identification

A citizen's self- proclaimed preference for one party or the other.

Party Nomination

the official nomination of a candidate to run for office. This means that the party will fully support this candidate's campaign.

Rational-choice theory

a popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters, as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible candidates. The theory also says that people will vote for those that will best represent their policy agendas; therefore, parties must represent what the people want without going from one extreme to the next (they have to stay moderate) in order to win office.

Ticket Splitting

When a citizen votes for a candidate in one political party for one position
and a candidate from a different political party for another position. The voter is NOT loyal to his/her own party, votes for both parties during a single election. More common today, especially since the Era of Divided Government and De-Alignment.

Partisan

blindly supporting one's own party while conflicting
with the opposing party. Opposite is "bi-partisan," which is when members of the two dominant parties work together to achieve a common goal. Example: "McCain-Feingold Bill" - John McCain is a Republican and Russ Feingold is a Democrat - they worked together to build a coalition of members from both parties that wanted to achieve some campaign finance reform.

Party Machines

A party organization that depends on rewarding its members. Party machines used to control city governments (Ex. Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall controlled NYC for the Democrats through much of the mid to late 1800's) Reward supporters with government jobs (patronage system), lucrative government contracts, creating policies that benefit a specific portion of the electorate and/or bribery.

Patronage

Awarding of government jobs or contracts to supporters. Expanded by President Andrew Jackson, greatly limited by the Pendelton Act of 1883 which required the use of a civil service exam to stop the hiring of unqualified workers into the government.

Closed primaries

elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with a party can vote for that party's candidates. It encourages party affiliation.

Open Primaries

Voters do not have to be registered to a party to vote in an election. They choose at the poll whether they will vote Democrat or Republican.

Blanket primaries

elections to select party nominees in
which voters are presented with a list of candidates from all of the parties. Voters
can then select some Democrats and some Republicans if they like. (No longer in
use - ruled Unconstitutional).

National Convention

the supreme power within each of the parties, and it is the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential candidate and vice presidential candidate, as well as to write the party's platform

Power base

The foundation of political power provided by a position, region, or group of voters.

Party era

When one political party is the dominate party for a long period of time. A majority of voters identify with the party in power; thus the party tends to win the majority of the elections. (Ex. Two Republican Eras, New Deal, Divided Government)

Critical election

one or a series of elections that cause political
parties to splinter and re-focus their agenda along new coalitions Referred to as an electoral "earthquake," it is characterized by the emergence of new issues, the formation of new coalitions, and the replacement of the majority party by the minority party. They are sometimes marked by national crisis, i.e: The Great Depression

Realignments

the displacement of the major party by the
minor party. This is often associated with major crisis or trauma. Ex. Great Depression time period, Republicans fall, Democrats rise.

Election of 1896

A critical election that initiated the second Republican era. The Democratic nomination William Jennings Bryan supported the populist idea of "free silver" ~ the linking of money with silver, which would devalue money to debtors. The Republican Party and William McKinley favored the gold standard, industrialization, the banks, high tariffs, and the industrial working class. An 80 percent voter turnout put Republican William McKinley in the White House, bringing the new working class and moneyed interests, like large corporations, into the Republican coalitions. The election shifted party coalitions, and entrenched the Republican Party for another generation

Watershed election

An election that decides the course of politics for decades. It is especially memorable, and usually proves to be a dividing line between historical periods

Free Soilers

A third party during the 1850s. This was the first truly anti-slavery party. This party was a splinter party of the Whigs that were opposed to slavery. This party was beneficial because it brought new ideas to the table, and provided a place for people that were unhappy with the views that other parties had on slavery. In 1856, the principles were absorbed into the newly formed Republican Party.

Coalition

A group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends.

Divided Government

When one political party is in control of the presidency, and one political party is control of Congress. Ex. Since 1968, the Republicans have dominated the presidency, while Democrats have dominated Congress. This did switch with the election of Bill Clinton, but the Republicans took over Congress 2 years after he was elected. This is caused by distrust in the government, and has led to party dealignment.

Dealignment

The gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen by the declining number of people that identify with a specific political party. Ex. Since 1968, a growing number of citizens are registering as "Independent" or for a third party instead of as a Democrat or Republican. In some states, like in New Hampshire, the number of Independents is greater than the number of Republicans or Democrats.

Splinter party

An offshoot of a major political party made up of people who feel that either the Republican or Democratic Party has none given their ideas a fair hearing. Ex. Teddy Roosevelt formed and ran as part of the Progressive Party in 1912. This party was created as a split from the Republican Party. Ex. The Dixiecrats, led by Strom Thurmond, split from the Democratic Party in 1948. They ran on a platform of segregation after Truman integrated the armed forces.

Proportional representation system

An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election. This system creates more parties in action in government.

Single member plurality district

An electoral system in which legislative seats are
awarded only to the candidate who comes in first in their constituencies. The winner only needs a plurality, not a majority. (This is different than the Electoral College system that requires a majority to name a winner, not just a plurality.)

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