Mississippian Culture (Chapter 1)
The ________ was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact.
Ferdinand and Isabella (Chapter 1)
_________ were the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition. They united Spain and sent Christopher Columbus on his expedition in 1492. They originally sent him to find a water route to India for trade but found the Americas instead.
Taino (Chapter 1)
The _______ were Native Americans that lived in Hispaniola. This is where Christopher Columbus first landed on his expedition. Within 50 years of Spanish arrival, enslavement and disease killed nearly 1 million Taino Indians.
Encomienda (Chapter 1)
_________ was a grant of authority over a population of Native Americans in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
Juan de Onate (Chapter 1)
_________ was a descendant of a wealthy Spanish family who, in 1598, took control of the Rio Grande region and the Pueblo region of what is now New Mexico
Conquistadores (Chapter 1)
Spanish soldiers led by Cortes and fueled by greed for riches. Between 1519 and 1521, the __________ conquered Tenochtitlan and the Aztec empire while killing thousands of Native Americans in what is present day Mexico.
Juan Ponce de Leon (Chapter 1)
________ was a Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.
Ferdinand Magellan (Chapter 1)
________ was a Portuguese captain in Spanish service; began the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim possession of the Philippines.
Francisco Coronado (Chapter 1)
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, _________ led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Hernando de Soto (Chapter 1)
________ was a Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa (Chapter 1)
In 1513, a Spanish explorer named _________ traveled across modern day Panama and discovred the Pacific Ocean. He claimed every land touched by the ocean for Spain.
Bartolome de Las Casas (Chapter 1)
Spanish missionary (priest) named ________ was an "upstander" for the Tainos. Published several books on the mistreatment of the Indians.
Mound Builders (Chapter 1)
The ____________ lived in the Ohio River Valley and were the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest. They did sustain some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting into their way of life during the first millennium AD. The Mississippian settlement at Cohokia, near present-day East St. Louis, Ill., was perhaps home to 40,000 people in about AD 1100. But mysteriously, around the year 1300, both the Mound Builder and the Mississippian cultures had fallen to decline.
Pueblo (Chapter 1)
1st American corn growers. The __________ lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs. They also had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from the rivers to grow corn.
Crusaders (Chapter 1)
Indirect discoverers of the Americas. After the _______ were foiled at taking the Holy Lands from Muslims, they brought Asian goods back to Europe. Europeans wanted more of the rare items but the goods were too expensive to transport over land so countries began looking for a sea route to India. Then Spain attempted to find a sea route but Columbus discovered the Americas.
Anasazi (Chapter 1)
The _______ were a Native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and Northern New Mexico and Arizona from about 100 AD. The descendants include the present-day Pueblo people. Culture includes Basket Maker phase, and later marked by creation of cliff dwellings and ecpert artisanship.
L'Anse aux Meadows (Chapter 1)
_________ was the sight where Norse seafarers landed in present day Newfoundland but was abandoned. This was the first sign of exploration before Columbus in the Americas.
Christopher Columbus (Chapter 1)
_________ was a Italian mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization. When trying to find a sea route to India he discovered the Americas. His discovery changed the global economy and started international trade between continents.
Treaty of Tordesillas (Chapter 1)
In 1494, the ____________ was an agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Giovanni Caboto (Chapter 1)
___________ was a Italian explorer who in 1497 sailed from England to Newfoundland. An Italian navigator and explorer commonly credited as the 1st European to discover North America.
Battle of Acoma (Chapter 1)
Battle in 1599, Spanish severed one foot off of each survivor of the Pueblos. They proclaimed the area to be the province of New Mexico in 1609 and found its caapital at Santa Fe 1610. It was known as the _____________.
Mestizos (Chapter 1)
The _________ were people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.
Hernan Cortes (Chapter 1)
_____________ led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. He was responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521.
Tidewater Region (Chapter 1)
The __________ was a narrow eastern coastal plain, creased by many river valleys, sloped gently upward to the timeworn ridges of the Appalachians
Malinche (Chapter 1)
_________ was one of the 20 women given to Cortés as a peace offering from city leaders on the coast of the Yucatán. She could speak the language of the people farther up the coast and translated for Aguilar, who then translated for Cortés. She became one of his closest advisors. She gave Cortes the advantage over the Aztecs because she could communicate with other tribes. Cortes built his Native American allies with her help.
Quetzalcoatl (Chapter 1)
According to legend, after his exile in Tula, _________ traveled east, crossing the sea on a raft of snakes. He would return one day, bringing a new reign of light and peace. When the Spanish conquistadors came, the Aztecs believed that Cortes was this god and welcomed him which led to the downfall of the Aztec empire.
Maize (Chapter 1)
________ was the main food source for many Native Americans. It fed millions and helped sustain large, dense populations. Started in Mexico and spread to the North American native tribes.
Cahokia (Chapter 1)
_______ was an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Vinland (Chapter 1)
__________ means "Land of Wine", given by Leif Ericsson to the present-day Canadian province of Newfoundland. It was briefly settled by Norse seafarers before being abandoned.
Sugar Revolution (Chapter 1)
The ____________ refers to the soaring demand for a sweetener that resulted in high profits for producers, large scale plantation production in Brazil and the West Indies, and increased slave trade that resulted in about millions of Africans being brought to the new world.
Tenochtitlan (Chapter 1)
___________ was the capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. It is now present day Mexico City.
St. Augustine (Chapter 1)
__________ was built by the Spanish in Florida to block French ambitions and protect sea-lanes to the Caribbean.
Pope's Rebellion (Chapter 1)
The ________ was a Indian uprising in 1680 where pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans. They destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of spanish settlers.
Three Sister Agriculture (Chapter 1)
The __________ was a Native American method to grow food. It involved the growth of beans on the treillis of the cornstalks while squash retained moisture within the soil. This rich diet produced high population densities such as the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee Indians.
Junipero Serra (Chapter 1)
_______________ was the leader of a group of Spanish missionaries who founded a chain of twenty-one missions beginning in 1769 at San Diego and stretching north of the San Francisco Bay. These missions gathered nomadic Indians into missions and taught them the values of Christianity.
Mission Indians (Chapter 1)
____________ were natives of California who were taught horticulture and arts and crafts by the Spanish missionaries; converted to Christianity and abandoned their culture.
Franciscans (Chapter 1)
____________ were Spanish missionaries who were responsible for establishing missions along the Californian coast and helping Pueblo Indians.
Black Legend (Chapter 1)
The _____________ was a idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
Hispaniola (Chapter 1)
__________ was the area where Taino Native Americans lived. Within 50 years of Spanish arrival, the population decreased from 1 million to 200 because of conquest and disease.
Robert La Salle (Chapter 1)
___________ was a Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
Norse (Chapter 1)
The ________ were seafarers from Scandanavia who landed in L'Anse aux Meadows, present-day Newfoundland. They settled briefly before abandoning the settlement.
Sir Walter Raleigh (Chapter 2)
_________ was a English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Surplus Population (Chapter 2)
England was overpopulated at the time of colonization which provided many laborers willing to work. Laborers were sent to the New World to start settlements. The extra population in England was known as a _____________.
Starving Time (Chapter 2)
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the _________ to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
2nd Anglo-Powhatan War (Chapter 2)
The _________ was a last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement. (1644-46)
Roanoke Island (Chapter 2)
____________ was the 2nd attempt at English colonization. Sir Walter Raleigh settled here in 1585. The colony eventually vanished.
Irish Tactics (Chapter 2)
____________ was the harsh treatment of the Indians intoduced by Lord de La Warr, burning houses, stealing food, used by English against Irish.
Three D's (Chapter 2)
Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability all contributed to the near extinction of the Indians near the English colonies. The ____________ described ravaged the Indians population. The Powhatan Confederacy lacked unity and the English settlers learned everything they needed to know from the Indians and didn't need them anymore.
Virginia (Chapter 2)
________ was the first of the 13 colonies to be established. There was conflict here between the Powhatan natives and the settlers. Virginia also became the first colony to export Tobacco which kept the colony alive financially.
Powhatan (Chapter 2)
________ was the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony.
1st Anglo-Powhatan War (Chapter 2)
The _________ was a result of harsh treatment to the Indians made by the English. The leader at the time was Lord De La Warr. He introduced "Irish Tactics." They raided villages, burned houses... etc. The first war ended with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas in 1614.
Powhatan Confederacy (Chapter 2)
The __________ was a alliance of Native American tribes living in the region of the initial Virginia settlement. Powhatan, leader of this alliance, tried to live in peace with the English settlers when the arrived in 1607. However, the confederacy lacked unity which was one factor that led to the downfall of the tribes.
Barbados Slave Code (Chapter 2)
Established in 1661, it gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions. The code spread from the West Indies to Carolina which was the start of using African slaves on Southern plantations.
Tuscaroras (Chapter 2)
In 1711, the _____________ attacked North Carolina, the Carolinians responded by crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to slavery and leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois.
John Smith (Chapter 2)
___________ took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
Lord Baltimore (Chapter 2)
____________ founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Lords Proprietors (Chapter 2)
The _________ were the 8 supporters to whom King Charles II of England gave a grant to establish a colony that included land that later became South Carolina.
Handsome Lake (Chapter 2)
In 1799, Angelic figures in traditional Iroquois garb appeared to ______________ and said that if the Iroquois did not mend their immoral ways then they would die out. He worked to revive old Iroquois customs and affirm family values, as well as forsake alcohol.
Primogeniture (Chapter 2)
_________ was the system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Virginia Company (Chapter 2)
The _______ was a joint stock company that received a charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies and guaranteed the English would have same rights in New world as in England.
Algonquians (Chapter 2)
The __________ were a Indian tribe that liven near Great Lakes; became a regional power by absorbing surrounding bands; forced the English to conform to Indian ways which created a zone where both Europeans and Native Americans were compelled ot accommodate one another.
Restoration Period (Chapter 2)
In England, the _______________ followed the restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660; England was able to continue empire building and royal involvement overseas.
Iroquios Confederacy (Chapter 2)
The _____________ was a powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida. They also made many European allies such as the French.
John Rolfe (Chapter 2)
_____________ was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Charles II (Chapter 2)
____________ was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.
Savannah Indians (Chapter 2)
The _____________ was a coastal tribe of Indians who aided the Carolina settlers in finding suitable Native American slaves. However, in 1707, the Savannah tribe ended the alliance and attempted to migrate to Pennsylvania where they were promised more equality. However, the Carolinians decided to wipe out the Savannahs before they could migrate and had virtually succeeded by 1710.
Yamasees (Chapter 2)
The _________ were defeated by North Carolina's citizens. They were the last Indian obstacle between the colonist's and their expansion south.
John Wesley (Chapter 2)
___________ was a missionary who came to Savannah, Georgia to spread the word of Christ among debtors and Indians but when he returned to England, went on to found the Methodist Church.
Joint-Stock Company (Chapter 2)
A ____________ was a company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Seminary of Sedition (Chapter 2)
____________ was the term used by King James I to describe the House of Burgesses.
Soil Butchery (Chapter 2)
Crops such as tobacco used all of the nutrients in the soil, so settlers were forced to move westward for more fertile land. This was known as ______________.
Indentured Servant (Chapter 2)
A _______________ was a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
Hiawatha (Chapter 2)
_____________ was a Indian from the Iroquois tribe who was one of two men who persuaded five nations to unite and work together as a group.
Lord De La Warr (Chapter 2)
______________ was the new governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
James Oglethorpe (Chapter 2)
______________ was the founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
House of Burgesses (Chapter 2)
The ___________ was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Act of Toleration (Chapter 2)
The ________________ was a legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
William Berkeley (Chapter 4)
A Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. _______________ enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
Nathaniel Bacon (Chapter 4)
_________ was a farmer in the backcountry, his resentment of Berkeley and the unbalanced power of the Virginia government led to a rebellion by him and other backcountry farmers.
Headright System (Chapter 4)
The ___________ declared that parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres were to be given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. This was used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Middle Passage (Chapter 4)
The __________ was part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
Bacon's Rebellion (Chapter 4)
___________ was a uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
Freedom Dues (Chapter 4)
__________ was the dues of a master to his indentured servant after the servant's period of indentured servitude. They included simple clothing, tools, and sometimes a parcel of land.
Royal African Company (Chapter 4)
The ___________ was a organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business.
Gullah (Chapter 4)
___________ was a combination of English and West African languages spoken by African Americans in the South Carolina colony.
Chesapeake (Chapter 4)
The _________ was a area in Virginia which was a very unhealthy place to live during the 1600's. Children usually didn't make it to adulthood. It was mostly used for tobacco growth but many of the nutrients in the soil were used up by the tobacco.
White Slaves (Chapter 4)
Chesapeake planters brought ____________ to the region. They represented more than 3/4 of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland in the 17th century.
Pennsylvania Dutch (Chapter 5)
The _________ were known as large numbers of German speaking protestants. They were called this because people coundn't pronounce the word Deutsch, which means German.
Scots-Irish (Chapter 5)
The __________ were a group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
Shenandoah Valley (Chapter 5)
The ________ was the site where most German and Scots-Irish settled in Virginia.
Great Wagon Road (Chapter 5)
The __________ was a old Iroquiois trail that German and Scotch-Irish settlers followed on the way to Philadelphia. They traveld west into the backcountry, which is an area of land along the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.
Paxton Boys (Chapter 5)
The _____________ were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Regulator Movement (Chapter 5)
The ______________ was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur (Chapter 5)
____________ was a Frenchman who settled in New York territory in 1759; he wrote a book called Letters of an American Farmer that established a new standard for writing about America.
Jayle Birds (Chapter 5)
____________ were British convicts who were shipped to America involuntarily. They included robbers, rapists, and murderers, but some were simply highly respectable citizens who had simply had been victimized by the strict English penal code.
Diphtheria (Chapter 5)
___________ was a disease that killed thousands of colonists in the 1730's because of lack of knowledge.
Triangular Trade (Chapter 5)
The ______________ was a practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Rum/Slaves/Molasses (Chapter 5)
__________________ were the 3 components in the triangular trade. Each was transported to another continent for profit.
Naval Stores (Chapter 5)
______________ were materials used to build and maintain ships, such as tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine. This was another reason the New England colonies were successful.
Molasses Act (Chapter 5)
The ___________ was a British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
Taverns (Chapter 5)
________________ were commonly found throughout the colonies. They were for amusement and gossip. They were helpful for freedom of speech and democracy which contributed to the American Revolution.
Established Churches (Chapter 5)
______________ was the term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics.
Anglican Church (Chapter 5)
The ______________ was one of the tax-supported churches in 1775. It belonged to the Church of England, which was the official faith in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York. It mainly served as a prop of England authority. This faith was far less intense than the other established church, the Congregational Church.
Congregationalist Church (Chapter 5)
The ____________ was a Calvinist church founded by Puritans that was established in the New World. It was popular in the New England colonies.
Dead Dogs (Chapter 5)
__________ were people who droned out tedious, over-erudite sermons from Puritan pulpits.
Arminianism (Chapter 5)
__________ was the belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.
Great Awakening (Chapter 5)
The _____________ was a religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Jonathan Edwards (Chapter 5)
________________ was the most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.
George Whitefield (Chapter 5)
____________ was a preacher who traveled throughout the colonies: He said the key test of election (salvation) is an emotional conversion experience.
Old Lights (Chapter 5)
______________ were Orthodox clergymen who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and the antics of the Great Awakening.
New Lights (Chapter 5)
______________ were revivalist ministers who emphasized emotive spirituality and encouraged missionary work among the natives, as well as founding many long-standing educational institutes, such as Princeton, Brown, and Dartmouth.
Princeton/Brown/Rutgers/Dartmouth (Chapter 5)
___________________ were the four colleges that grew directly out of the Great Awakening revival. Known as some of the most advanced institutions in the world.
John Trumbull (Chapter 5)
_________________ was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War famous for his historical paintings including his Declaration of Independence.
Charles Wilson Peale (Chapter 5)
_____________ was the colonial painter best known for his portraits of George Washington who also ran a museum for stuffed birds and practiced dentistry.
Benjamin West (Chapter 5)
______________ was a English painter who became the second president of the Royal Academy.
Phillis Wheatley (Chapter 5)
______________ was an American poet who was the first recognized Black writer in America.
Poor Richard's Almanack (Chapter 5)
_________ was created by Benjamin Franklin. It contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. It was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.
Benjamin Franklin (Chapter 5)
____________ was an American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac, he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution. His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
John Peter Zenger (Chapter 5)
__________ was a journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press.
Seditious Libel (Chapter 5)
_________ is a written language that seeks to convince others to engage in the overthrow of a government.
Royal Colonies (Chapter 5)
____________ were colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
Proprietary Colonies (Chapter 5)
____________ were colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
Popery (Chapter 5)
_____________ was the fear that the pope would send representatives and bring Catholicism back to the colonies, leading to the eradication of "Catholic" holidays, such as Christmas.
Gary Nash (Chapter 5)
_____________ was a post-revisionist author of the "The Urban Crucible" who emphasized the role of growing economic distres in colonial cities in creating a climate in which revolutionary sentiment could flourish.
Edmund S. Morgan (Chapter 5)
______________ was an important figure in early American history who was a Professor of History at Yale University and argued that Virginians in the 1650s--and for the next two centuries--turned to slavery and a racial divide as an alternative to class conflict.
Huguenots (Chapter 6)
_____________ were French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Edict of Nantes (Chapter 6)
In 1598, the _________________ promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants.
Quebec (Chapter 6)
__________ was the first permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain.
Samuel de Champlain (Chapter 6)
___________ was a leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
New France (Chapter 6)
_______________ was formed from small French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system. Created by Samuel de Champlain.
Coureurs de Bois (Chapter 6)
________________ were French fur traders and trappers who went far into the wilderness of Quebec and developed extensive trade. The traders formed partnerships with the Indians and lived among them and some even married the Indian women. The fur trade they established helped begin the creation of French agricultural estates along the St. Lawrence River and the creation of military and trade centers at Quebec and Montreal.
Voyageurs (Chapter 6)
______________ were French-Canadian explorers, adventurers, and traders. They carried fur and goods in a canoe along the rivers to trade.
Montreal (Chapter 6)
____________ was a French city in New France that fell to Britain in 1760 which marked the end of the French in the New World.
Antoine Cadillac (Chapter 6)
_____________ was a Frenchman who founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers making a play for the Ohio Valley.
Louisiana (Chapter 6)
____________ was the name Robert de La Salle gave to his claim of the Mississippi River and its surroundings. It provided transportation for trade.
King William's War (Chapter 6)
_______________ was also known as the War of the league of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.
Queen Anne's War (Chapter 6)
(1702-1713), ____________ was the second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.
Peace of Utrecht (Chapter 6)
The _____________ ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
Acadia (Chapter 6)
__________ was a French-speaking but British-controlled region near Nova Scotia. The English expelled peaceful Acadian farmers from their homeland during the French and Indian war. Many resettled in Louisiana, becoming Cajuns.
War of Jenkins's Ear (Chapter 6)
The ______________ was triggered in 1739 when a British captain had his ear sliced off by Spanish authorities. Parliament then declared war on Spain as a retribution for general mistreatment of the English while in Spain. This was the first major war after the War of Spanish Succession and the first in a long line of wars in the 18th century (1739-1763, with peace between 1748-1756) over the power of Prussia and the control of overseas trade.
King George's War (Chapter 6)
____________ was a land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne's War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia.
Louisbourg (Chapter 6)
_____________ was a strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759.
Ohio Valley (Chapter 6)
The __________ was a region that was disputed by British, French and Indians; Indian tribes lived in the valley while France claimed it as territory and English settlement was expanding into it; tension eventually caused war to begin.
French and Indian War (Chapter 6)
The _______________ was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Seven Years' War (Chapter 6)
The ________________ was also known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Albany Congress (Chapter 6)
In 1754, the _____________ urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. The congress drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. It was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
Edward Braddock (Chapter 6)
___________ was a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.
Regulars (Chapter 6)
___________ were trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts. During the French and Indian War, British generals, used to commanding experienced regulars, often showed contempt for ill-trained colonial militiamen.
Buckskins (Chapter 6)
____________ were untrained, undisciplined militiamen who were under Braddock's command.
William Pitt (Chapter 6)
______________ was a British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government, and earned himself the name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a war against Quebec. Pittsburgh was named after him.
James Wolfe (Chapter 6)
_____________ was the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, he was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
Plains of Abraham (Chapter 6)
The _________ was a field near Quebec; the site of a major British victory over the French in the French and Indian War.
Marquis de Montcalm (Chapter 6)
____________ was the leader of the French forces at Quebec who saw Quebec fall under smaller forces under the command of Gen. Wolfe. Marquis died during the Battle of Quebec.
Battle of Quebec (Chapter 6)
The ________________ was a battle between Gen. Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm which occurred at Quebec. Wolfe's forces surprised the larger forces of Marquis and defeated them. Both Wolfe and Marquis died in battle. Quebec fell on September 13, 1759.
Treaty of Paris (1763) (Chapter 6)
The _______________ was a treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
Pontiac's Uprising (Chapter 6)
In 1763, ___________________ was an Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. Pontiac opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763 (Chapter 6)
The _______________ was a proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Rights of Englishmen (Chapter 7)
___________ is a term prevalent in seventeenth-century England and America referring to certain historically established rights, beginning with the rights of the Magna Carta, that all English subjects were understood to have. These included the right not to be kept in prison without a trial, the right to trial by jury, security in one's home from unlawful entry, and no taxation without consent, among others.
Republicanism (Chapter 7)
__________ is the indirect democracy that emphasizes the separation of powers within a state and the representation of the public through elected officials.
Radical Whigs (Chapter 7)
The ___________ were a group of British political commentators. They were very nervous about the power of Parliament and the arbitrary powers of the monarch. They warned the colonists to be always on the lookout for a violation of their rights.
Mercantilism (Chapter 7)
_____________ was an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Enumerated Products (Chapter 7)
_______________ were items enumerated in acts of Parliament that could only be legally shipped to England and other destinations within the British empire.
John Hancock (Chapter 7)
____________ was one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. He inherited a large trading business. He first accepted british tax policies, but became a fervent opponent of the Stamp Act. He became an ally of Samuel Adams, the British intended to arrest them but they were warned by Paul Revere, and William Dawes. Served as president of 1st and 2nd continental congress and was the first person to sign the declaration of independence. Served 9 terms as the massachusets governor.
George Grenville (Chapter 7)
_____________ was the British Prime Minister and architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament.
Sugar Act of 1764 (Chapter 7)
The _______________ was part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Quartering Act of 1765 (Chapter 7)
The ________________ forced colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties.
Stamp Act (Chapter 7)
THe ___________ was passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Admiralty Courts (Chapter 7)
_____________ were British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
No Taxation Without Representation (Chapter 7)
________________was a cry that reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament.
Virtual Representation (Chapter 7)
_______________ was the British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members.
Nonimportation Agreements (Chapter 7)
__________________ were agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular Parliamentary acts.
Sons of Liberty (Chapter 7)
The ____________ was a radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Daughters of Liberty (Chapter 7)
The ___________________ was a organization that supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Declaratory Acts (Chapter 7)
The ______________ were issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government's right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. It was used to save face after the colonists forced the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Charles Townshend (Chapter 7)
__________________ controlled the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.
Townshend Acts (Chapter 7)
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the _________________. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Boston Massacre (Chapter 7)
During the _______________, British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Crispus Attucks (Chapter 7)
__________ was a African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War.
King George III (Chapter 7)
______________ was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.
Lord North (Chapter 7)
____________ was Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Samuel Adams (Chapter 7)
___________ was the Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies.
John Adams (Chapter 7)
_____________ was a Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
Committees of Correspondence (Chapter 7)
________________________, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Thomas Hutchinson (Chapter 7)
________________ believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes.
Boston Tea Party (Chapter 7)
During the ________________, Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Intolerable Acts (Chapter 7)
The ___________________ was a response to the Boston Tea Party, 4 acts were passed in 1774. The port of Boston closed; reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
Boston Port Act (Chapter 7)
The ______________ closed the tea-stained harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured. Restrictions were placed on town meetings. And enforcing officials who killed a colonist could be sent to Britain for trial.
Quebec Act (Chapter 7)
The _____________ was designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants.
1st Continental Congress (Chapter 7)
The ______________ met on September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
Patrick Henry (Chapter 7)
__________ was an American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Declaration of Rights (Chapter 7)
The ______________ was created by the first continental congress and said that Parliament has the right to regulate trade but shouldn't tax. It also said that each colony has the right to determine need for British troops.
The Association (Chapter 7)
___________________ was a document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered.
Lexington & Concord (Chapter 7)
______________ was the first conflict of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Minute Men (Chapter 7)
__________ were rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to desperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution.
Hessians (Chapter 7)
____________ were German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Loyalists (Chapter 7)
The ____________ were American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
English Whigs (Chapter 7)
The _____________ was a British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause.
Torie (Chapter 7)
A ___________ was a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist.
Marquis de Lafayette (Chapter 7)
_________________ was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Valley Forge (Chapter 7)
____________ was the place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops.
Baron von Steuben (Chapter 7)
_____________ was a stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
Prince Whipple (Chapter 7)
African American soldier named _____________ who crossed the Delaware River with Washington (correctly shown in famous painting.)
Lord Dunsmore (Chapter 7)
______________ was a man who offered freedom to enslaved persons who would fight with the British.
Ethiopian Regiment (Chapter 7)
The ______________ was a British regiment made up of black slaves who fled their masters following Dunmore's proclamation (slaves who fought for Britain would become free). The regiment was devastated by smallpox and was consequently unsuccessful.
2nd Continental Congress (Chapter 8)
The _________________ met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. Three delegatres added to the Congress were Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. The Congress took on governmental duties and united all the colonies for the war effort. They selected George Washington as commender of the army. They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states. On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.
George Washington (Chapter 8)
________________ was commander of the Continental Army, defeated Cornwallis at the Battle Yorktown, and 1st president of the U.S.A.
Ethan Allen (Chapter 8)
________ was the leader of the Green Mountain Boys fought with American troops in the Revolutionary War. On May 10, 1775, the Green Mountain Boys seized Ft. Ticonderoga in New York from the British, helping lead to the victory at Saratoga.
Benedict Arnold (Chapter 8)
________________ had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Ticonderoga & Crown Point (Chapter 8)
In May 1775, small American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons; they aquired a large store of gunpowder/artillery from ______________ which helped with Bunker Hill.
Bunker Hill (Chapter 8)
________________ took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British claimed victory on account of the depletion of American supplies, yet the Americans gained confidence. It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Olive Branch Petition (Chapter 8)
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies. This offer was known as the _____________.
Hessians (Chapter 8)
_____________ were German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Invasion of Canada (Chapter 8)
During the ______________, U.S. General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec; however, it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed, Benedict was shot, and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured.
Richard Montgomery (Chapter 8)
______________ was a formerly British General, he then led the colonists. He led a successful attack into Montreal, then on to Quebec. Montgomery's attack on Quebec failed and he was killed, thus, the whole invasion into Canada failed.
Evacuation Day (Chapter 8)
___________ occurred on March 17, 1776, the day the British troops left (evacuated) Boston.
Thomas Paine (Chapter 8)
___________ was a Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man.
Common Sense (Chapter 8)
___________ was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.
Citizen Virtue (Chapter 8)
____________ is a component many colonists in America felt was fundamental to any successful republican government.
Collective Good (Chapter 8)
A _____________ is something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member.
Natural Aristocracy (Chapter 8)
A __________________ is a aristocracy which arises out of work and competition rather than birth, education, or special privilege.
Leveling (Chapter 8)
________________ is the policy in which government uses price controls to balance the economic effects of farm surpluses or shortages.
Richard Henry Lee (Chapter 8)
_______________ was a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
Thomas Jefferson (Chapter 8)
________________ was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Declaration of Independence (Chapter 8)
The __________________ was approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Natural Rights (Chapter 8)
_____________ was the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property.
Bill of Indictment (Chapter 8)
The _________________ was a declaration of the charges against an accused person that is presented to a grand jury to determine whether enough evidence exists for an indictment.
Patriots (Chapter 8)
_____________ were American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
Declaration of the Rights of Man (Chapter 8)
The ____________________ was a statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Abigail Adams (Chapter 8)
_____________ was the wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Anarchy (Chapter 8)
______________ is a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government).
Colonel Tye (Chapter 8)
_______________ was a notorious black loyalist who served under Lord Dunmore and conducted guerilla raids in New Jersey for years. Interracial band of Loyalists plundered villages, spiked cannons to make them incapable of firing, and kidnapped Patriot officers.
United Empire Loyalists (Chapter 8)
________________ were American colonists loyal to Great Britain who relocated to Canada after the American Revolution.
William Franklin (Chapter 8)
______________ was the royal governor of New Jersey. Ben Franklin's son. He was very loyal to the king. Had an English wife.
Battle of Long Island (Chapter 8)
During the _________________, George Washington and his army were badly beaten on August 27, 1776. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded at Brooklyn Heights, the 9,500 troops that survived retreated under cover of night across the East River to Manhattan.
William Howe (Chapter 8)
______________ was a English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
Trenton (Chapter 8)
On Christmas night in _______________, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.
John Burgoyne (Chapter 8)
______________ was a British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777.
Barry St. Leger (Chapter 8)
___________ was a British officer in the American Revolutionary War. He led a British advance into New York's Mohawk Valley in the summer of 1777. Hoping to join the British army of General John Burgoyne at Albany, St. Leger was halted by American militia in Fort Stanwix. His forces were nearly destroyed while repelling an American relief unit at Oriskany, and the approach of additional American troops forced St. Leger to retreat to Canada.
Saratoga (Chapter 8)
______________ was a battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Horatio Gates (Chapter 8)
Burgoyne was forced to surrender his command to ______________, an American general, on October 17, 1777 at the battle of Saratoga.
Freedom of the Seas (Chapter 8)
__________ was the right of merchant ships to travel freely in international waters, and very important to international commerce for the isolated United States.
1778 Treaty of Alliance (Chapter 8)
The _______________ was a treaty that Benjamin franklin negotiated with France in which required France to help in the Revolutionary War.
Armed Neutrality (Chapter 8)
____________ was the term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain.
Comte de Rochambeau (Chapter 8)
______________ commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.
West Point (Chapter 8)
Hudson River stronghold offered to the British by Benedict Arnold for money and a military commission. This deal was known as ____________.
King's Mountain (Chapter 8)
_______________ was a battle in NC where Patriots defeated Loyalist militia; many neutral citizens swung over to patriot side and there was increased dislike of the British.
Carolina Campaign (Chapter 8)
The ______________ in 1778 was a campaign of the Revolution, British-backed loyalists in the South were defeated by Nathaniel Greene.
Nathaniel Greene (Chapter 8)
____________ was a Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".
George Rogers Clark (Chapter 8)
___________ was the leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America.
John Paul Jones (Chapter 8)
___________ was the commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.
Privateers (Chapter 8)
_____________ were "Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping.
Lord Cornwallis (Chapter 8)
__________ was the commander of British troops in the South, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown.
Admiral de Grasse (Chapter 8)
____________ was the French naval commander and helped the troops in the Navy trap and cut off Cornwallis.
Yorktown (Chapter 8)
In 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered in _____________ after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops.
John Jay (Chapter 8)
_____________ was a United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829).
Treaty of paris 1783 (Chapter 8)
The __________________ ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
George Bancroft (Chapter 8)
_______________ was the "Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America.
Progressive Historians (Chapter 8)
The _________________ were a group added to the imperial school's interpretation by focusing on the struggles for power among the colonists themselves, struggles that had made use of the tensions aroused by Britain's colonial policies. Stressing economic and social conflicts that had manifested themselves in politics, the progressives saw the war, and the period that followed, as an era in which the crucial questions had been not only that of home rule, but also that of "who would rule at home." Although they failed to agree on the meaning of the outcome of the latter struggle, the progressive historians forced Americans to realize that their Revolution had touched the entire fabric of society.
Society of Cincinnati (Chapter 9)
The ___________________ established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
Land Ordinance of 1785 (Chapter 9)
The _____________ was a major success of the Articles of Confederation. It provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Fundamental Law (Chapter 9)
___________ was the basic legal and political document of a state; it prescribes the rules through which government operates.
Republican Motherhood (Chapter 9)
___________ was the idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children.
The Federalist (Chapter 9)
_______________ was a group of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
Government By Supplication (Chapter 9)
_______________________ refers to the government when Congress was lucky if in any year it received one-fourth of its requests.
Northwest Ordinance (Chapter 9)
The __________________ was enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.
Constitutional Convention (Chapter 9)
The _______________ was a meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Daniel Shays (Chapter 9)
____________ was the head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy".
Shays's Rebellion (Chapter 9)
_____________ was led by Daniel Shays in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Demigods (Chapter 9)
____________ were the people at the Philadelphia convention. most notable, Washington the chairman. Benjamin Franklin. James Madison ("Father of the Constitution"), Alexander Hamilton, who advocated for strong central government.
Alexander Hamilton (Chapter 9)
_______________ emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, he spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Sovereignty (Chapter 9)
___________ is the ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Quorum (Chapter 9)
__________ is a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business.
Great Compromise (Chapter 9)
The ________________ was a agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
Electoral College (Chapter 9)
The _______________ is a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president.
Three-Fifths Compromise (Chapter 9)
The ____________________ between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention said that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
Federalists (Chapter 9)
_______________ were supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Anti-Federalists (Chapter 9)
__________________ opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Virginia Plan (Chapter 9)
The _____________ was presented by Virginia delegate James Madison, which said that states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population.
Charles Beard (Chapter 9)
____________ was a historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution.
New Jersey Plan (Chapter 9)
The ____________ was the opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Northwest Territory (Chapter 9)
The __________________ was a vast territory of land that included present-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin; was politically organized by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
King Congress (Chapter 9)
______________ refers to the time when States refused to pay anything and complained about the tyranny of congress. Whether Congress would be under the control of judiciary or executve branch or Congress controlled by both.
Mobocracy (Chapter 9)
_____________ is to be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it.
Annapolis Convention (Chapter 9)
The ______________ was held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention.
James Madison (Chapter 9)
_____________ was the fourth President of the United States. A member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers, which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Bill of Rights (Chapter 9)
The _____________ was the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (Chapter 9)
The ___________ was written by Thomas Jefferson to enforce the separation of church and state. It said that no man compelled to support any church, and that matters of religion were based on opinion. It showed the idea of freedom for all coming into effect.
Articles of Confederation (Chapter 9)
The ________________ was the nations first constitution, and was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Nationalists (Chapter 9)
________________ believed in uniting people who share a common history and culture.
Consensus Historians (Chapter 9)
______________ wanted to acheive nationalism by agreeing on points in history.
Extensive Republic (Chapter 9)
______________ was Madison's term used to describe a federal republic governing a large territory.
9th Amendment (Chapter 10)
The ____________ is the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
10th Amendment (Chapter 10)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. This is known as the ___________.
Judiciary Act of 1789 (Chapter 10)
Congress passed the _____________ which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Funding at Par (Chapter 10)
______________ meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton's establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.
Assumption (Chapter 10)
________ was the economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
District of Columbia (Chapter 10)
The ____________ is a federal district of the eastern United States on the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland. Coextensive with the city of Washington, it was established by congressional acts of 1790 and 1791 on a site selected by George Washington.
Father of the National Debt (Chapter 10)
The nickname of Alexander Hamilton is the __________________.
Excise Tax (Chapter 10)
The ___________ was a tax on the manufacturing of an item. It helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
Bank of the United States (Chapter 10)
The ______________ was proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Strict Interpretation (Chapter 10)
___________ was the theory set forth by Thomas Jefferson that the federal government possesses only those powers that the US Constitution specifically allows a narrow view of the constitution.
Elastic Clause (Chapter 10)
_____________ is the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers.
Loose Clause (Chapter 10)
____________ is the idea that we can stretch the Constitution to meet our changing needs.
Necessary and Proper Clause (Chapter 10)
_____________ is the constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers.
Broad Interpretation (Chapter 10)
A __________________ of the U.S. constitution holds that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court).
Liberty and No Excise (Chapter 10)
______________ was the cry of supporters of the Whiskey Rebellion.
Whiskey Boys (Chapter 10)
____________ were whiskey distillers in Western PA. They believed the excise tax was a burden on economic necessity. They started the Whiskey Rebellion on August 1, 1794.
Factions (Chapter 10)
___________ are political groups that agree on objectives and policies; the origins of political parties.
Parties (Chapter 10)
_____________ are people directly concerned with or taking part in any legal matter.
Two-Party System (Chapter 10)
The ____________ is a electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.
Democratic-Republicans (Chapter 10)
_____________ were led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong State governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank.
Isolationism (Chapter 10)
_______________ is the abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy.
Edmond Genet (Chapter 10)
____________ was sent by France to the US to enlist American aid in the French revolution with or without the Washington administration's consent. He openly commissioned American privateers to harass British shipping and enlisted Americans in intrigues against the Spanish outpost of New Orleans. He also opened France's Caribbean colonies to American shipping, providing American shippers a choice between French free trade and British mercantilism.
Miami Confederacy (Chapter 10)
The _______________ was a alliance of eight Indian nations who terrorized Americans and were given firearms by the British.
Little Turtle (Chapter 10)
____________ was the chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
Josiah Harmar (Chapter 10)
_____________ was a United States general who led soliders toward Miami village to stop raids.
Arthur St. Clair (Chapter 10)
_____________ was governor of Northwest Territory and an American General who fought and lost against Little Turtle.
Anthony Wayne (Chapter 10)
_____________ was a American General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
Battle of Fallen Timbers (Chapter 10)
_____________ occurred when the U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River.
Treaty of Greenville (Chapter 10)
The __________________ between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
Anglophile (Chapter 10)
A ____________ was a person who has great admiration or fondness for England and its people.
Jay's Treaty (Chapter 10)
______________ was made by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.
Pinckney's Treaty (Chapter 10)
____________ was a agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans.
Right of Deposit (Chapter 10)
The ____________ caused U.S farmer to pay the Spanish to load and unload goods at the port of New Orleans, mouth of Mississippi.
Farewell Address (Chapter 10)
The _______________ was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers. It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
Merchant Marine (Chapter 10)
A ______________ is a country's fleet of ships that engage in commerce or trade.
Father of His Country (Chapter 10)
__________ was a complimentary nickname given to our first president, George Washington.
John Adams (Chapter 10)
__________________ was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself.
High Federalists (Chapter 10)
John Adams was a federalist. he would not give into Hamilton. Their disagreements created a split in the federalist party. This split created a new party known as __________________.
John Marshall (Chapter 10)
______________ was a Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review.
XYZ Affair (Chapter 10)
The ______________ was a insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute! (Chapter 10)
________________ was a Federalist rally cry about the XYZ affair.
Navy Department (Chapter 10)
After the XYZ affair, Adams stepped up war preparations with the creation of the _____________. Hostilities remained mostly on the water.
Quasi War (Chapter 10)
The ____________ was a undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Convention of 1800 (Chapter 10)
The _____________ was a agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president.
Alien Laws (Chapter 10)
The _______________ placed a barrier on immigration and raised residency requirements to apply for citizenship.
Sedition Act (Chapter 10)
The _____________ made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, guaranteed by the First Amednment.
Matthew Lyon (Chapter 10)
____________ was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 Matthew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (Chapter 10)
The _____________ were written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Compact Theory (Chapter 10)
______________ was the idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
Whispering Campaign (Chapter 11)
The ____________ was a organized dissemination of derogatory rumors designed to discredit a candidate. Used against Thomas Jefferson.
Sally Hemings (Chapter 11)
___________ was a slave owned by Thomas Jefferson, who, according to some, was the mother of some of Thomas Jefferson's children.
Aaron Burr (Chapter 11)
_____________ was an American politician and adventurer. He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York and a strong supporter of Governor George Clinton. He is remembered not so much for his tenure as the third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson, as for his duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. He is also known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason. Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton.
Slave Power (Chapter 11)
_____________ is the term used to characterize the political power of the slave holding class in the South. It helped Jefferson win the campaign.
Lame-Duck (Chapter 11)
A ___________ is a outgoing official serving out the remainder of a term, after retiring or being defeated for reelection.
Revolution of 1800 (Chapter 11)
The ______________ was Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Albert Gallatin (Chapter 11)
_______________ was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.
Judiciary Act of 1801 (Chapter 11)
The ______________ was one of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
John Marshall (Chapter 11)
____________ was a American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
William Marbury (Chapter 11)
___________ was appointed by Adams as one of the midnight judges. Then, the Secretary of State under Jefferson, Madison, he sued to get it, claiming he was legally owed his commission. The case went to the Supreme Court, where Marshall denied it, on the grounds that the Judiciary Act, on which Marbury based his case, was unconstitutional. This then gave the Supreme Court final say over weather a law is constitutional or not, which had not been established up to that point.
Marbury V. Madison (Chapter 11)
_____________ was the 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Judicial Review (Chapter 11)
____________ is the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
Samuel Chase (Chapter 11)
____________ was a Supreme Court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.
High Crimes and Misdemeanors (Chapter 11)
________________ are crimes against democracy; grounds for impeachment.
Judge Breaking (Chapter 11)
______________ was Jefferson's ill-advised attempt at this was a reassuring victory for the independence of the judiciary & for the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government.
Peaceful Coercion (Chapter 11)
Jefferson believed in the idea of ____________ which stated that if the embargo act worked it would give rights of neutral nations and paint a new way of conducting foreign affairs.
Barbary States (Chapter 11)
________________ were nations along the coast of North Africa to which the United States paid a yearly tribute so they would stop seizing our ships.
Pasha of Tripoli (Chapter 11)
The ________________ was a North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805.
Stephen Decatur (Chapter 11)
____________ was a American naval officer known for his heroic deeds in the Tripolitan War, the War of 1812, and skirmishes against the Barbary pirates.
Tripolitan War (Chapter 11)
The ____________ was a conflict in 1801 when the pasha of Tripoli cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate, lasting four years, after which a treaty was reached for the sum of $60,000 to ransom captured Americans.
Mosquito Fleet (Chapter 11)
___________ was the name for the navy of Jefferson's presidency. Trying to avoid a overly-strong army, he had the navy dwindled down to a few tiny boats.
Robert Livingston (Chapter 11)
_______________ was the U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804. He negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
Santa Domingo (Chapter 11)
____________ is a sugar rich island where Toussaint L' Overture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (Chapter 11)
__________________ was a gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon's sale of Louisiana.
Empire of Liberty (Chapter 11)
_____________ was Jefferson's idea of an empire within a nation, in which the US purchased the Louisiana Territory from France.
Louisiana Purchase (Chapter 11)
During the ________________ the U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Valley of Democracy (Chapter 11)
The ___________ was Jefferson's nickname for Louisiana as he saw the future that it held.
Meriwether Lewis (Chapter 11)
____________ was the personal secretary to Jefferson, was sent to explore the northern part of the Louisian Purchase.
William Clark (Chapter 11)
___________ was a American explorer who aided Meriwether Lewis in an expedition through the Louisiana Purchase.
Corps of Discovery (Chapter 11)
The ______________ was the official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members.
Sacajawea (Chapter 11)
__________________ accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition during its journey to the Pacific Ocean between 1804 and 1806. She made important contributions to the success of the Corps of Discovery: she helped guide the expedition through unfamiliar territory and she helped translate when the expedition encountered Indian tribes.
Zebulon Pike (Chapter 11)
___________ was a American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the Lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase.
James Wilkinson (Chapter 11)
____________ became the governor of District of Louisiana in 1804 (one of the two groups that the land purchased was divided into). Plotted with Aaron Burr to take over Louisiana in the Burr Conspiracies.
Battle of Trafalgar (Chapter 11)
The _____________ was an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Orders in Council (Chapter 11)
The _______________ was created by Britain to blockade the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations.
Impressment (Chapter 11)
___________ was the British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service.
Press Gangs (Chapter 11)
______________ took over foreign ships crews and forced them to become part of the British seaboard.
Chesapeake Affair (Chapter 11)
The ______________ was a incident in 1807 that brought on a war crisis when the British warship Leopard attacked the American warship Chesapeake; the British demanded to board the American ship to search for deserters from the Royal Navy. When the U.S. commander refused, the British attacked, killing or wounding 20 American sailors. Four alleged deserters were then removed from the Chesapeake and impressed. Many angry and humiliated Americans called for war.
Embargo Act (Chapter 11)
The _______________ forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 (Chapter 11)
The _______________ was passed during the presidency of James Madison. It stated that America could trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Macon's Bill No. 2 (Chapter 11)
In 1810, _____________ forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
War Hawks (Chapter 11)
______________ were Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Tecumseh (Chapter 11)
_____________ was a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement.
The Prophet (Chapter 11)
______________ was Tecumseh's brother. He tried to help unite the Northwest Indian tribes in their struggle against the onslaught of US settlers.
William H. Harrison (Chapter 11)
________________ was the hero of Battle of Tippecanoe & Battle for the Thames in the War of 1812; major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay.
Battle of Tippecanoe (Chapter 11)
The _________________ was between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
Mr. Madison's War (Chapter 11)
__________________ was the name given to the War of 1812 by pro-British Federalists. The War of 1812 was fought to gain Canada and was opposed by the Federalists. The War of 1812 is considered America's second war of independence, and resulted in a wave of nationalism that swept throughout the country.
USS Constitution (Chapter 12)
The _________ was also known as Old Ironside. During the War of 1812 British cannonballs bounced off the thick wooden hull.
Oliver Hazard Perry (Chapter 12)
_________ was a naval hero during the War of 1812. He won the battle on Lake Erie against the British.
Battle of the Thames (Chapter 12)
The ____________ occurred when William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.
Thomas Macdonough (Chapter 12)
__________ was a naval officer who forced the invading British army near Plattsburgh to retreat on September 11, 1814; He saved the upper New York from conquest.
Bladensburgh Races (Chapter 12)
British invaders set fire to Washington; including the Capitol and the White House. This event was known as the ______________.
Francis Scott Key (Chapter 12)
___________ was a United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Star-Spangled Banner (Chapter 12)
The ____________ is the national anthem written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812
Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Chapter 12)
The ______________ was fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
Battle of New Orleans (Chapter 12)
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S. This event is known as the _________________.
Henry Clay (Chapter 12)
____________ was the speaker of the House of Representatives and political leader from Kentucky.
Treaty of Ghent (Chapter 12)
On December 24, 1814, the _____________ ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Blue Light Federalist (Chapter 12)
_____________ were treasonous New Englanders who disagreed with the war with Britain. They would flash their blue lights to signal the British who were blockading the ports if merchant ships were trying to escape.
Hartford Convention (Chapter 12)
The ____________ was a meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence.
Virginia Dynasty (Chapter 12)
The ______________ referred to the last four of the Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This "dynasty" ended in 1824.
Hartford Resolutions (Chapter 12)
The ____________ was the death dirge of Federalist Party. The Federalists never had a successful presidential campaign again. Demanded financial compensation for damaging acts of nullification from Washington.
Rush-Bagot Agreement (Chapter 12)
The ___________ was an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada.
Washington Irving (Chapter 12)
____________ was a American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
James Fennimore Cooper (Chapter 12)
______________ wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
North American Review (Chapter 12)
The _____________ was a magazine published after War 1812 began publication in 1815. Created a sense of nationalism.
Tariff of 1816 (Chapter 12)
The _____________ was a protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Internal Improvements (Chapter 12)
_______________ is the program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Erie Canal (Chapter 12)
The __________ was a canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
James Monroe (Chapter 12)
_______________ was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars.
Goodwill Tour (Chapter 12)
The _____________ was when Monroe brought back the idea of giving thank you speeches to all the major cities.
Era of Good Feelings (Chapter 12)
The ______________ was the name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Sectionalism (Chapter 12)
_____________ is loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole.
Wildcat Banks (Chapter 12)
______________ were banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States' response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.
Panic of 1819 (Chapter 12)
The _____________ was a economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Ohio Fever (Chapter 12)
European immigrants bought large amounts of cheap west American land. This movement was known as _____________.
Cumberland Road (Chapter 12)
___________ was the first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Land Act of 1820 (Chapter 12)
The ____________ authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money.
Tallmadge Amendment (Chapter 12)
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed the ________________ to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
Black Code (Chapter 12)
The _____________ was a set of laws passed to restrict the actions of newly freed slaves.
Stephen Douglas (Chapter 12)
__________ was a senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty.
Peculiar Institution (Chapter 12)
______________ was a euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
Missouri Compromise (Chapter 12)
The ____________ allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820).
McCulloch v. Maryland (Chapter 12)
In ____________, Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law.
Loose Construction (Chapter 12)
__________ is the belief that the government can do anything that the Constitution does not prohibit.
Cohens v. Virginia (Chapter 12)
During ____________, Cohens was found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, and Marshall asserted the right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions.
Gibbons v. Ogden (Chapter 12)
______________ was a landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (Chapter 12)
In 1819, __________________ occurred because New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Daniel Webster (Chapter 12)
___________ was a senator who, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency.
Anglo-American Convention (Chapter 12)
The ______________ established border between US and Canada at the 49th parallel; issue of Oregon border put on hold for 10 years.
Florida Purchase Treaty (Chapter 12)
In 1819, the ______________ (also known as the Adams-Onis Treaty) sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Monroe Doctrine (Chapter 12)
The __________ was a statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Russo-American Treaty (Chapter 12)
The ______________ was a treaty establishing the border between the Oregon Country and Russian America at 54 ْ 40' N. (1824)
Corrupt Bargain (Chapter 13)
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State. This event is known as the ______________.
William H. Crawford (Chapter 13)
____________ was nominated by the Republican caucus as he was the favorite of the extreme states' rights faction of the party. But other candidates received nominations from state legislatures and won endorsements from mass meetings throughout the country.
John C. Calhoun (Chapter 13)
____________ was the 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
12th Amendment (Chapter 13)
The _____________ brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Speaker of the House (Chapter 13)
The ______________ was a office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
Minority President (Chapter 13)
A ________________ is a candidate who fails to win a majority of the popular votes and yet wins the electoral vote and thereby becomes President.
States' Rights (Chapter 13)
_____________ is the belief that an individual state may restrict federal authority.
National-Republicans (Chapter 13)
______________ were supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants.
King Mob (Chapter 13)
__________ was the nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy.
Alexis de Tocqueville (Chapter 13)
______________ was a French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859).
Spoils System (Chapter 13)
The ____________ was the practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Tariff of Abominations (Chapter 13)
The ______________ was a bill that favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Denmark Vesey (Chapter 13)
____________ was a United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged.
Abolitionism (Chapter 13)
______________ was the drive to end slavery in the United States during the antebellum years was known by this term. The movement included dedicated people like William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass.
Nullies (Chapter 13)
______________ were people that was under Jackson's presidency that tried to muster the necessary 2/3 vote for nullification in South Carolina legislature. they were blocked by "submission men".
Nullification Crisis (Chapter 13)
During the _______________, Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate.
Robert Hayne (Chapter 13)
______________ was the governor of South Carolina during the nullification crisis and called for a counterclaim to Jackson's opposition of the South Carolina stance.
Tariff of 1833 (Chapter 13)
The _______________ stated that import taxes would gradually decrease by about 10% over a period of eight years until they matched the levels of the Tariff of 1816. Although the state and federal governments were able to strike a compromise, Jackson's near invasion of S. Carolina illustrated the federal government's stance on the power of a state to annul federal laws.
Force Bill (Chapter 13)
In 1833, the ________________ authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. It was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians (Chapter 13)
The ______________________ adopted a system of settled agriculture and a notion of private property. Missionaries opened schools for Cherokees. In 1827, the Cherokee National Counsel adopted a written constitution that provided for executive, legislative, judicial branches of government. Some even had slaves.
Sequoyah (Chapter 13)
____________ was a Cherokee who created a notation for writing the Cherokee language (1770-1843).
Five Civilized Tribes (Chapter 13)
The _________________ were the Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion.
Indian Removal Act (Chapter 13)
The _____________ was passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Trail of Tears (Chapter 13)
The ______________ was the tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their home land to Indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of Cherokees died.
Indian Territory (Chapter 13)
The ______________ is an area to which Native Americans were moved covering what is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Chapter 13)
The _________________ managed Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency.
Black Hawk War (Chapter 13)
During the ______________, Chief Black Hawk of Sauk led a rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox people were murdered; tribes were removed to areas west of Mississippi.
Seminole War (Chapter 13)
The ____________ was a conflict that began in Florida in 1817 between the Seminole Indians and the U.S. Army when the Seminoles resisted removal.
Osceola (Chapter 13)
___________ was the Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s. He died under suspicious circumstances after being tricked into surrendering (1837).
Nicholas Biddle (Chapter 13)
______________ was president of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Bank War (Chapter 13)
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks." This event is known as the ___________.
Recharter Bill (Chapter 13)
The Bank of the United States charter was set to expire 1836. Clay pushed for renewal so it would be an issue in election of 1832. Vetoed by Jackson. This bill was known as the ________________.
Anti-Masonic Party (Chapter 13)
The ____________ was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party.
Nominating Convention (Chapter 13)
A ____________ was a official public meeting of a party to choose candidates for office.
Biddle's Panic (Chapter 13)
When a Biddle called in his bank's loans, evidently hoping to illustrate the bank's importance by producing a minor financial crisis. A number of wobblier banks were driven to the wall by this, but Jackson's resolution remained firm. This was known as ____________.
Pet Banks (Chapter 13)
___________ were State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Specie Circular (Chapter 13)
The _______ was issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver.
Cronyism (Chapter 13)
______________ was favoritism shown to friends and associates (as by appointing them to positions without regard for their qualifications).
Martin Van Buren (Chapter 13)
______________ was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Panic of 1837 (Chapter 13)
The ____________ was a economic downturn caused by loose lending practices of state banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation.
Divorce Bill (Chapter 13)
The __________ was a bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Stephen Austin (Chapter 13)
__________ was known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Davy Crockett (Chapter 13)
__________ was a United States frontiersman and Tennessee politician who died at the siege of the Alamo (1786-1836).
Jim Bowie (Chapter 13)
____________ was a notorious slave smuggler, Indian fighter, and inventor of the Bowie Knife, he was killed at the Alamo.
Sam Houston (Chapter 13)
______________ was a United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863).
Santa Anna (Chapter 13)
____________ was a Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Alamo (Chapter 13)
The _________ was a mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico.
Goliad (Chapter 13)
____________ was a site where about 400 defeated, surrounded, and surrendered Americans were slaughtered by Santa Anna. "Remember goliad" became a war cry soon thereafter.
San Jacinto (Chapter 13)
__________ was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas.
Slavocracy (Chapter 13)
__________ was the term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.
Old Three Hundred (Chapter 13)
___________ was Austin's first group of settlers; most of these came from the southern United States, especially Louisiana.
Samuel Maverick (Chapter 13)
___________ was a American pioneer known for his shady business practices as a rancher.
John Tyler (Chapter 13)
____________ was elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died.
Fredrick Jackson Turner (Chapter 13)
____________ was a historian during the 1890s who wrote the frontier thesis, which argued that the continuous existence of the American frontier had shaped the character of the nation, and the end of this frontier marked the end the first chapter in American history.
Market Revolution (Chapter 13)
The ___________ was a dramatic increase between 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and railroad.
Richard Hofstadter (Chapter 13)
_____________ argued that Jacksonian democracy was not a rejection of capitalism, like Arthur M was saying, but instead the effort of aspiring entrepreneurs to secure laissez-faire policies that would serve their own interests against their monopolistic, eastern competitors.
Self-Reliance (Chapter 14)
______________ was an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, emphasizing the importance of the individual.
Herman Melville (Chapter 14)
_____________ was an American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels.
Rugged Individualism (Chapter 14)
_________________ was the belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal.
George Catlin (Chapter 14)
______________ created Native American portraits based on the Plains Indians. He thought that the Native American way of life was going to be extinct.
Queen of the South (Chapter 14)
New Orleans was the _________________ because Urban population greatly increased. New Orleans was greatly prospering during this time.
America Letters (Chapter 14)
_________________ were letters from immigrants in the United States to friends and relatives in the old country, which spurred further immigration.
Black Forties (Chapter 14)
______________ was the term used to describe the 1840s, when the potato famine struck Ireland and caused the mass imigration of Irish to America.
NINA (Chapter 14)
__________ stood for the phrase No Irish Need Apply. This was used by Americans to keep the Irish away from jobs.
City Machines (Chapter 14)
____________ provided some welfare for poor immigrants in exchange for political support.
Conestoga Wagon (Chapter 14)
A _____________ was a sturdy vehicle topped with white canvas and used by pioneers to move west.
Kindergarten (Chapter 14)
____________ was a warmly supported public school introduced to America by Germans.
Nativists (Chapter 14)
___________ were Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (Chapter 14)
The noisier American "Nativists" rallied for political action against Irish Catholics. In 1849 they formed the __________________, which soon developed into the formidable American, or "Know-Nothing," party.
Know-Nothing Party (Chapter 14)
New immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. Some nativities formed the _______________ in New York, also called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue.
Awful Disclosures (Chapter 14)
_______________ was Maria Monk's sensational expose of alleged horrors in Catholic convents.
Modern Factory System (Chapter 14)
The ___________________ was a method of manufacturing first adopted in England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s and later spread to America. Workers and machines were brought together in a central factory, they were specially designed to handle the machinery and flow of materials.
Forty-Eighters (Chapter 14)
____________ were liberal German refugees who fled failed Democratic revolutions and came to America.
Amish (Chapter 14)
The _____________ were of German origin, these people were originally Anabaptist and would settle in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio.
Samuel Slater (Chapter 14)
_______________ was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Moses Brown (Chapter 14)
____________ was a wealthy merchant who partnered with Slater to create the first factory with a spinning machine in America.
Eli Whitney (Chapter 14)
_____________ was an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
Cotton Gin (Chapter 14)
The _______________ was a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.
King Cotton (Chapter 14)
______________ was a term used to describe the dominance of the South's cash crop (Cotton) on politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War in the South.
Mass Production (Chapter 14)
_________________ is the process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply.
Interchangeable Parts (Chapter 14)
___________________ was a process developed by Eli Whitney in the 1790s that called for making each vital part of a machine exactly the same.
Elias Howe (Chapter 14)
_____________ invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Isaac Singer (Chapter 14)
_________________ made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.
Patent Office (Chapter 14)
The _________________ was the government bureau in the Department of Commerce that kept a record of patents and trademarks and granted new ones.
Limited Liability (Chapter 14)
________________ is a form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.
Boston Associates (Chapter 14)
The ________________ were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
Free Incorporation (Chapter 14)
_____________________ were laws first passed in New York in 1848 that meant that businessmen could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature.
Samuel Morse (Chapter 14)
_______________ developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance. k
Workingmen's Parties (Chapter 14)
Skilled craftsmen created world's first __________________, which sought to mobilize lower class support for candidates.
Ten-Hour Day (Chapter 14)
A major triumph for labor came in 1840 when President Van Buren established the ____________ for all federal employees on public works.
Depression of 1837 (Chapter 14)
The _______________ was a obstacle associated with the labor netted 300,000 trade unionists, unemployment spread, union membership shriveled
Commonwealth v. Hunt (Chapter 14)
In 1842, _________________ was a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Factory Girls (Chapter 14)
______________ were young, unmarried women who left their farms to find economic success, they worked 6 days a week, 12 hours a day in textile factories.
Lowell Mill (Chapter 14)
The ________________ was a textile mill located in a factory town in Massachusetts that employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses.
Catherine Beecher (Chapter 14)
____________ was a female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
Cult of Domesticity (Chapter 14)
The ___________________ was a tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women.
Women's Sphere (Chapter 14)
The ________________ was the argument of a women's role in society; men felt it should be at home.
Domestic Feminism (Chapter 14)
_____________ was the belief that women had the right to complete freedom within the home.
Porkopolis (Chapter 14)
______________ was the nickname for Cincinnati for its important slaughterhouses.
John Deere (Chapter 14)
_____________ was a American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Cyrus McCormick (Chapter 14)
_______________ was a United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester.
Lancaster Turnpike (Chapter 14)
The _________________ was a road built in the 1790s by a private company, linking Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Cumberland Road (Chapter 14)
_________________ was the first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Robert Fulton (Chapter 14)
_________________ was a American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship.
Fulton's Folly (Chapter 14)
_______________ was the nickname for Robert Fulton's boat, the Clermont, because everyone thought it would not work and it would just explode. However, it traveled from NY to Albany and back in a record time.
Erie Canal (Chapter 14)
The _______________ was a 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825.
DeWitt Clinton (Chapter 14)
________________ was a United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal.
Pullman Sleeping Palaces (Chapter 14)
The __________________ was introduced in 1859; improved railroads.
Cyrus Field (Chapter 14)
_______________ laid first transatlantic telegraph cable. Cut communication time from Europe to America and vice versa.
Clipper Ships (Chapter 14)
________________ were American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers.
Pony Express (Chapter 14)
The _______________ was a service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail from Missouri to California in 10 days.
Market Revolution (Chapter 14)
The _______________ was a dramatic increase between 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
Roger Taney (Chapter 14)
________________ was the chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional.
Ralph W. Emerson (Chapter 15)
__________________ was a 19th century writer who wrote many poems and philosophical essays. He was well known for his statements: "To be great is to be misunderstood" and "Shallow men believe in luck."
The Age of Reason (Chapter 15)
Written by Thomas Paine. __________________ was published in three parts between 1794 and 1807. A critique of organized religion, the book was criticized as a defense of Atheism. Paine's argument is a prime example of the rationalist approach to religion inspired by Enlightenment ideals.
Unitarians (Chapter 15)
The _______________ was a new Protestant sect that formally expressed the philosophy of Deism. They believed in a single divine deity. Believed in free will, salvation through good works, and the intrinsically moral nature of human beings. Their creed was rational, optimistic and non-dogmatic.
2nd Great Awakening (Chapter 15)
The _________________ was a series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans
Camp Meetings (Chapter 15)
_________________ were tools of the Second Great Awakening where people would gather to hear hellfire speeches.
Peter Cartwright (Chapter 15)
_______________ was the most famous Methodist travelling frontier preacher. He traveled around the country preaching to large groups.
Charles Finney (Chapter 15)
______________ was a evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
Burned Over District (Chapter 15)
The ________________ was a area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
Millerites (Chapter 15)
______________ were Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end.
Joseph Smith (Chapter 15)
_____________ founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, his announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Book of Mormon (Chapter 15)
____________ was published by Joseph Smith in 1830. It was named for the ancient prophet who was claimed to have written in. It was, he said, a translation of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God. It told the story of two successful ancient American civilizations, whose people had anticipated the coming of Christ and were rewarded when Jesus actually came to America after his resurrection. Ultamitly, however, both civilizations collapsed.
Brigham Young (Chapter 15)
____________ was the successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Mormon Corridor (Chapter 15)
The _________________ was a group of Mormon settlements southwest of Salt Lake City.
Ragged Schools (Chapter 15)
_______________ provided free public education aimed at poor families, wealthier families realized it was better than having uneducated young voters on the loose.
Horace Mann (Chapter 15)
____________ was Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Noah Webster (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
William McGuffey (Chapter 15)
________________ was an American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of the nation's first and mostly widely used series of textbooks. It is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary.
University of Virginia (Chapter 15)
The __________________ was one of the earliest state-supported universities, founded in 1819; founded by Thomas Jefferson, who designed its architecture and separated it from religion and politics; focused on modern languages and the sciences.
Emma Willard (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Mary Lyon (Chapter 15)
____________________ in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary.
Lyceum (Chapter 15)
_________________ was a school for students intermediate between elementary school and college.
North American Review (Chapter 15)
The ___________________ was a intellectual magazine that reflected the post-1815 spirit of American nationalism.
Imprisonment for Debt (Chapter 15)
During late 1830, _________________ caused hundreds of penniless people were languishing in filthy holes, sometimes for owing less than one dollar. The poorer working classes were especially hard hit by this merciless practice. But as the embattled laborer won the ballot and asserted himself, state legislatures gradually abolished debtors' prisons.
Reformatories (Chapter 15)
_________________ were special schools where young people who have broken the law go to live until they are able to follow the rules of society.
Penitentiaries (Chapter 15)
______________ were new prisons in PA where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system.
Dorothea Dix (Chapter 15)
______________ was a reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
William Ladd (Chapter 15)
______________ was the leading spirit in the formation of the American Peace Society in 1828.
American Temperance Society (Chapter 15)
The __________________ was established in 1826. Within five years there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members who had taken a pledge to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages
Cold Water Army (Chapter 15)
The ______________ was a nickname for those that joined the temperance movement.
Neal S. Dow (Chapter 15)
_________________ was a nineteenth century temperance activist, dubbed the "Father of Prohibition" for his sponsorship of the Maine Law of 1851, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the state..
Maine Law of 1851 (Chapter 15)
The _________________ prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol. A dozen other states followed Maine's lead, though most statutes proved ineffective and were repealed within the decade.
Spinsters (Chapter 15)
__________________ were widows and unmarried women who spun for a living often recruited into a family enterprise by the wife of the family.
Lucretia Mott (Chapter 15)
________________ was a Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Chapter 15)
________________ was a member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony (Chapter 15)
______________ was a social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation.
Elizabeth Blackwell (Chapter 15)
______________ was a woman who challenging the taboo of professional women. She graduated from medical college, thereby proving that women are able to do what men can.
Margaret Fuller (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a journalist, critic and women's rights activist. One of first professional women journalists in America.
Grimke Sisters (Chapter 15)
The ________________ were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
Seneca Falls Convention (Chapter 15)
The ________________ took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Robert Owen (Chapter 15)
________________ was a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
New Harmony (Chapter 15)
________________ was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
Brooke Farm (Chapter 15)
______________ was an experiment in Utopian socialism which lasted for 6 years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, MA. It was created by George Ripley as a thinking tank, combining high thinking and plain living. It survived only because of an excellent community school, which many from outside the community paid to send their children too.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (Chapter 15)
_________________ wrote The Scarlet Letter; originally a transcendentalist but later became a leading anti-transcendentalist.
Oneida (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a perfect untopian communtiy established in 1848 in New York by John Humphrey Noyes. The people in this community rejected notation of family and marrige. All residents were "married" to all other residents.
Shakers (Chapter 15)
____________________ was a millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Ann Lee (Chapter 15)
_________________ was a Quaker woman who came from England in 1774. She gathered believers around her and claimed that God had told her that the source of all evil was sexual intercourse.
Benjamin Silliman (Chapter 15)
___________________ was the most influential scientist of the first half of the 19th century. He was a pioneer chemist and geologist who taught and wrote brilliantly at Yale College for more than 50 years.
Louis Agassiz (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a United States naturalist (born in Switzerland) who studied fossil fish recognized geological evidence that ice ages had occurred in North America.
Asa Gray (Chapter 15)
________________ was a United States botanist who specialized in North American flora and who was an early supporter of Darwin's theories of evolution.
John Audubon (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a American naturalist who was known for his paintings of wild birds in their natural surroundings, best known for his work Birds of America.
John Humphrey Noyes (Chapter 15)
______________ was founder of the Oneida community, at first gathered a group of "Perfectionists" and created the doctrine of "complex marriage," but was kicked out of Vermont and fled to NY and formed the Oneida community.
Utopianism (Chapter 15)
______________ was the idea of creating an ideal community based on self-sufficiency in which all work was shared/property was owned in common.
Bible Communism (Chapter 15)
_______________ was the system of complex relations withing Noyes' Oneida Community.
Putney Association (Chapter 15)
The ______________ was a group of Noyes' first followers named after Putney, Vermont.
Greek Revival Architecture (Chapter 15)
The ______________________ was the type of buildings like greek temples that things in US were modeled after from 1825 to 1860.
Gilbert Stuart (Chapter 15)
_______________ made George Washington look perfect and spectacular in his paintings. He idealized him. He was also an ex-patriot who spent his whole life in Europe.
Hudson River School (Chapter 15)
The ______________ was founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
Minstrel Shows (Chapter 15)
__________________ were when white actors wearing black face mimicked and ridiculed African American culture, became increasingly popular.
Stephen Foster (Chapter 15)
____________ was a white Pennsylvanian of the mid-1800s whose songs captured the plaintive spirit of the slaves.
Knickerbocker Group (Chapter 15)
The ___________________ was a group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes.
Natty Bumppo (Chapter 15)
______________ was the protagonist of The Leatherstocking Tales. He was born to white parents but raised by Native Americans. He uses his knowledge of nature to save the day, showing America's look Westward and towards the frontier.
Transcendentalism (Chapter 15)
_______________ was a philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
The American Scholar (Chapter 15)
_________________ was Emerson's lecture at Harvard; encouraged American authors to develop their own literary techniques instead of using European ideas.
Henry D. Thoreau (Chapter 15)
___________________ was a Transcendentalist and a non-conformist. He condemned government and said, "The best governmnet is the one that rules the least." He inspired passive resistance (or portest), was a naturalsit and, while living in the woods, he wrote "Walden."
Walden (Chapter 15)
______________ was a book written by Thoreau in which he wrote about his experiences while living alone on Walden Pond.
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (Chapter 15)
____________________ was the doctrine, promoted by writer Henry David Thoreau in an essay of the same name, that later influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Walt Whitman (Chapter 15)
______________ was a American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Leaves of Grass (Chapter 15)
____________ was a collection of poems by Walt Whitman, written mainly in free verse. Published with revisions every few years in the late 19th century, it contains such well known poems as "I Hear America Singing," "Song of Myself," and "Oh Captain, My Captain."
Henry W. Longfellow (Chapter 15)
__________________ wrote many epic poems about history, though they were inaccurate and very long. He usually wrote in iambic pentameter.
John Whittier (Chapter 15)
________________ was an American poet of the mid-19th century, the Fighting Quaker, the uncrowned poet laureate of the anti-slavery crusade, and the poet of human freedom.
James Lowell (Chapter 15)
__________________ ranks as one of America's better poets; distinguished essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat. Remembered as a political satirist in his Biglow Papers especially those of 1846 dealing with the Mexican War.
Oliver W. Holmes (Chapter 15)
________________ was a liberal Supreme Court justice who supported the Progressive Movement and believed that laws should fit the changing needs of society.
Louisa May Alcott (Chapter 15)
________________ was a American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women.
Emily Dickinson (Chapter 15)
_____________ was a reclusive New England poet who wrote about love, death, and immortality.
Edgar Allen Poe (Chapter 15)
_________________ was orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter.
William Gillmore Simms (Chapter 15)
_______________ was the most noteworthy literary figure produced by the South before the Civil War. He wrote eighty two books. His themes were on the southern way of life. He became rich, but was never accepted because he was born poor.
George Bancroft (Chapter 15)
__________________ was the secretary of the navy. Took part in the founding of Annapolis naval academy. The Father of American history because he published six volumes of US history showing patriotism and nationalism.
William H. Prescott (Chapter 15)
_________________ was the American historian who published classic accounts of the conquests of Mexico and Peru in the 1840s.
Francis Parkman (Chapter 15)
_________________ was the 19th century blind historian who chronicled the struggle between France and England for mastery of North America.
Harriet Beecher Stowe (Chapter 16)
______________ wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Nat Turner (Chapter 16)
________________ was a slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Elijah Lovejoy (Chapter 16)
________________ was a American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views.
William Lloyd Garrison (Chapter 16)
_____________ was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Sojourner Truth (Chapter 16)
__________________ was a United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883).
Abolitionism (Chapter 16)
_____________ was the militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces.
Frederick Douglass (Chapter 16)
______________ was a United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895).
Liberty Party (Chapter 16)
The _______________ was a former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848.
Cotton Kingdom (Chapter 16)
______________ was a term for the south that emphasized its economic dependence on a single staple product.
Theodore D. Weld (Chapter 16)
__________________ was another leading white abolitionist. He preached against slavery and in 1839, he wrote Slavery as it is, a pamphlet that exposed the evil of slavery.
Tappan Brothers (Chapter 16)
The _______________ were successful merchants in NYC; used wealth to fund antislavery activities and pamphlets.
Snobocracy (Chapter 16)
_________________ was what the poor white farmers of the South called the aristocratic way of life of the Cotton Kingdom.
Republic of Liberia (Chapter 16)
The ________________ was formed by the American Colonization Society in 1822 by former slaves on the West African coast, its population eventually comprised fifteen thousand freed blacks. Its capital was named Monrovia, after President Monroe.
Lane Rebels (Chapter 16)
The ____________________ was a group of theology students, led by Theodore Dwight Weld, who were expelled for abolitionist activity and later became leading preachers of the antislavery gospel.
The Liberator (Chapter 16)
__________________ was a anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
American Colonization Society (Chapter 16)
The _________________ was formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
Sold Down the River (Chapter 16)
_________________ was a phrase used to describe a slave that was sold away from their plantation and family.
Mountain Whites (Chapter 16)
_________________ were a special categoy of Southern whites from Appalachian, believed the impending civil war was a "rich man's war but a poor man's fight."
Third Race (Chapter 16)
_________________ was a reference to free African-Americas, who were prohibited from working in certain occupations and forbidden from testifying against whites in court. The designation of blacks as the "third race" set the standard for racial interaction for the next hundred years.
Black Belt (Chapter 16)
The ________________ was a deep south area that stretched from South Carolina to Georgia to the new states in the southwest frontier which had the highest concentration of slaves.
Deep South (Chapter 16)
The ____________ was also know as the "lower south" or "cotton kingdom" is the area where the majority of the country's cotton was produced. Many people flocked to this area to find work.
David Walker (Chapter 16)
____________ was a free african american who urged blacks to take their freedom by force.
Free Soil Party (Chapter 16)
The ____________ was formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Apologists (Chapter 16)
______________ were those in the South who justified slavery by claiming African Americans were better off under the current system than left on their own.
Gag Resolution (Chapter 16)
The ___________ was a strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives.
Garrisonians (Chapter 16)
___________ was a term used to describe the radical followers of William Lloyd Garrison.
John Tyler (Chapter 17)
_____________ was elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, he was responsible for the annexation of Texas after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery.
Fiscal Bank (Chapter 17)
The ______________ was the attempt of creating the 3rd national bank with a fancy name; President Tyler vetoed it twice; he did not want another national bank.
Tariff of 1842 (Chapter 17)
The _______________ was a protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
3rd War with England (Chapter 17)
The ___________________ was a war of words, British insult Americans, aided by the stress of the Canadian rebellion 1837.
Canadian Insurrection (Chapter 17)
During the _________________ in 1837, a group of Canadians rebel appeared. The US government tried to uphold neutrality despite popular opposition.
Aroostook War (Chapter 17)
The ______________ was a clash over the Maine-Canada boundary where a road was proposed to connect Halifax and Quebec.
Mesabi Iron Range (Chapter 17)
The _______________ contributed greatly to the steel industry in the 1890s, mountains of ore in the Minnesota-Lake Superior area, this iron range was obtained in 1842 when the Canadian-U.S. boundaries was rearranged.
James K. Polk (Chapter 17)
_________________ was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. He favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Joint Resolution (Chapter 17)
A ___________________ is a resolution passed by both houses of Congress which becomes legally binding when signed by the chief executive (or passed over the executive's veto).
Oregon Country (Chapter 17)
The _________________ was a area of land including present day Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and parts of British Columbia. In 1790 simultaneous claims were made on the territory by Robert Grey and George Vancouver. A treaty in 1818 allowed joint occupation by the U.S and Britain, through the 1820s and 30s missionaries traveled through the territory and by the 1840s the U.S. was the main occupant in the territory.
Hudson's Bay Company (Chapter 17)
The ________________ was the British company that had a monopoly of the fur trade in the Oregon Country in the 1840s.
Willamette Valley (Chapter 17)
The _______________ was the spot where many settlers traveling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
Oregon Fever (Chapter 17)
________________ was the enthusiasm for emigration to the Oregon Country in the late 1830s and early 1840s.
Dark Horse (Chapter 17)
A ________________ is a political candidate who is not well known but could win unexpectedly.
Manifest Destiny (Chapter 17)
_________________ is the expression that was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Fifty Four Forty or Fight (Chapter 17)
________________ was the political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States.
Robert J. Walker (Chapter 17)
__________________ proposed a tariff that reduced the rates of the 1842 tariff, it provided revenue despite opposition from New Englanders.
Walker Tariff (Chapter 17)
The ________________ was the Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed "Black Tariff" of 1842 under president John Tyler.
Nueces River (Chapter 17)
The ________________ was a river in south Texas that Mexico claimed was the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
John Slidell (Chapter 17)
_______________ was a diplomat sent by Polk to buy California, New Mexico, and Texas from the Mexicans. Mexico rejected his offer and Polk sent Taylor's army into Mexico.
Zachary Taylor (Chapter 17)
_______________ was the general that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Abraham Lincoln (Chapter 17)
_____________ was one of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. Lincoln's attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election.
Spot Resolutions (Chapter 17)
The ___________________ were proposed by Abraham Lincoln in the spring of 1846. After news from president James K. Polk that 16 American service men had been killed or wounded on the Mexican border in American territory, Abraham Lincoln, then a congressman from Illinois, proposed these resolutions to find out exactly on what spot the American soldier's blood had been shed. In Polk's report to congress the President stated that the American soldiers fell on American soil, but they actually fell on disputed territory that Mexico had historical claims to. To find out were the soldiers fell was important because congress was near to declaring war on Mexico.
Stephen Kearney (Chapter 17)
_____________ was a Colonel, under the direction of Polk, led a small army that captured Santa Fe with no opposition. He then proceeded to California where he joined a conflict already in progress that was being staged jointly by American settlers.
John C. Fremont (Chapter1 17)
____________ was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Bear Flag Republic (Chapter 17)
The _____________ was the nickname for California after it declared independence from Mexico in 1846.
Buena Vista (Chapter 17)
___________________ occurred in 1847 when United States forces under Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican forces under Santa Anna in the Mexican War.
Winfield Scott (Chapter 17)
______________ was a General in the Mexican-War; " Old Fuss and Feathers"; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.
Nicholas Trist (Chapter 17)
___________ was sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Chapter 17)
The ____________ was a treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
Conscience Whigs (Chapter 17)
________________ were anti-slavery Whigs who opposed both the Texas annexation and the Mexican War on moral grounds.
Robert E. Lee (Chapter 17)
_____________ was a Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force.
Ulysses Grant (Chapter 17)
______________ was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States. He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Colossus of the North (Chapter 17)
_________________ was the name given to America by Latin America; we were seen as the overbearing policeman.
Mexican Cession (Chapter 17)
__________________ is the historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. This massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
Calfornios (Chapter 17)
_______________ were settlers of Spanish or Mexican descent who populated California.
Sutter's Mill (Chapter 18)
_____________ was the location where gold was discovered in California in 1848, setting off the gold rush.
Conscience Whigs (Chapter 18)
_______________ were anti-slavery whigs who opposed both the Texas annexation and the Mexican War on moral grounds.
49ers (Chapter 18)
_______________ were miners who went west in search of gold, namely to California.
Mexican Cession (Chapter 18)
The ______________________ occurred when some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada and Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
Underground Railroad (Chapter 18)
The _________________ was a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada.
Harriet Tubman (Chapter 18)
______________ was a United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North.
Nashville Convention (Chapter 18)
The ________________ was held in June of 1850. Delegates from 9 slaves states met to decide the course of action if the US Congress decided to ban slavery in the new territories.
Immortal Trio (Chapter 18)
The _________________ was a congressional debate of 1850 was called to address the possible admission of California to the Union and threats of secession by southerners. They included Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster spoke at the forum.
Little Giant (Chapter 18)
_______________ was Stephen Douglas' nickname because he was very influential in the Senate but short in stature.
7th of March Speech (Chapter 18)
The __________________ was a speech given by Daniel Webster in 1850, where he endorses the compromise of 1850 in order to prevent a Civil War.
Old Guard (Chapter 18)
The ______________ is the older incumbent members of Congress, refers generally to a veteran or group of veterans, a conservative faction, or an older segment of a population.
Young Guard (Chapter 18)
The _________________ were young radical anti-slaveryites more interested in purification of the Union than its preservation.
William Seward (Chapter 18)
______________ was the Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Higher Law (Chapter 18)
________________was senator William Seward's doctrine that slavery should be excluded from the territories as contrary to a divine moral law standing above even the Constitution.
Millard Fillmore (Chapter 18)
________________ was the successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Compromise of 1850 (Chapter 18)
The _________________ forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (Chapter 18)
The _____________________ came from the Compromise of 1850; federal commissioners were appointed and given authority to issue warrants, gather, posses and force citizens to help catch runaway slaves.
Personal Liberty Laws (Chapter 18)
The __________________ were laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves.
Finality Men (Chapter 18)
The __________________ was a group of about five thousand Georgia Whigs who futilely voted for Webster in 1852 even though he had already died.
Treaty of 1848 (Chapter 18)
The _______________ was a treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (Chapter 18)
The ___________________ was between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama.
William Walker (Chapter 18)
__________________ installed himself as the President of Nicaragua in July 1856. He legalized slavery, but was overthrown by surrounding Central American countries and killed in 1860.
Filibustering (Chapter 18)
________________ is referring to adventurers who conduct a private war against a foreign country. During 1850-1851 two expeditions descended upon Cuba by the Southerners.
Ostend Manifesto (Chapter 18)
The __________________ was a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Opium War (Chapter 18)
The _____________ was a war between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Caleb Cushing (Chapter 18)
________________ was a American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia with China in 1844.
Treaty of Wanghia (Chapter 18)
The _______________ was the first diplomatic agreement between China and America in history, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization, it was rewarded with extraordinary amount of trading power.
Matthew C. Perry (Chapter 18)
In 1853, __________________ presented the Japanese with a letter from the President calling for Japan to grant trading rights to Americans, Japan signed in 1854 which opened free trade.
Treaty of Kanagawa (Chapter 18)
The _____________________ was an agreement by Japan with America, that Japan would open two ports to trade with the U.S. and would help shipwrecked U.S. sailors.
Gadsden Purchase (Chapter 18)
The __________________ was the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States by providing the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (Chapter 18)
In 1854, the ________________ treated Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Nebrascals (Chapter 18)
_______________ was a derisive term for Northern antislaverites who came to settle Kansas to prevent it from becoming a slave state.
Simon Legree (Chapter 19)
_________________ was the cruel slave owner that killed Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom's Cabin.
The Impending Crisis of the South (Chapter 19)
____________________ was the trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most.
New England Emigrant Aid Company (Chapter 19)
The ___________________ was a antislavery organization in the North that sent out thousands of pioneers to the Kansas-Nebraska territory to thwart the Southerners and abolitionize the West.
Beecher's Bibles (Chapter 19)
_________________ were rifles paid for by New England abolitionists and brought to Kansas by anti-slavery pioneers.
Border Ruffians (Chapter 19)
_______________ were Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas's election during the mid-1850's.
John Brown (Chapter 19)
_______________ was a abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
Pottawatomie Creek (Chapter 19)
________________ was the site at which John Brown hacked five proslaveryites to pieces.
Lecompton Constitution (Chapter 19)
The __________________ supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
James Buchanan (Chapter 19)
________________ was the 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
Bleeding Kansas (Chapter 19)
___________________ was a sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making Civil War imminent.
Charles Sumner (Chapter 19)
_______________ was a abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the south provoked a physical assault that severely injured him.
Preston Brooks (Chapter 19)
_______________ was a South Carolina representative who used a cane to beat Charles Sumner on the Senate floor for his criticisms of pro-slavery leaders.
Millard Fillmore (Chapter 19)
_____________ was the successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Roger B. Taney (Chapter 19)
_______________ was the fifth Chief Justice, he was the first Roman Catholic to hold the job and was pro-slavery. He wrote the decision on the Dred Scot case.
Fifth Amendment (Chapter 19)
The __________________ was a amendment to the Constitution of the United States that imposes restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused of crimes.
Panic of 1857 (Chapter 19)
The _________________ was the economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads.
Tariff of 1857 (Chapter 19)
The ________________ lowered duties on imports in response to a high Treasury surplus and pressure from Southern farmers.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (Chapter 19)
In 1858, during the ___________________, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate.
Freeport Doctrine (Chapter 19)
The _____________ was the idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so.
Harper's Ferry (Chapter 19)
________________ was John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged.
Charleston Convention (Chapter 19)
The ________________ was a meeting that led up to Civil War. Discussion of adopting pro-slavery platform and wanted the endorsement of Dred Scott.
John C. Breckinridge (Chapter 19)
________________ was the South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated.
Constitutional Union Party (Chapter 19)
In 1860, the _______________ was made by former Whigs who joined the Know-Nothings, who opposed Lincoln and Douglas, started a new party and nominated John Bell who was opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution.
Confederate States of America (Chapter 19)
The _________________ was a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States.
John Crittenden (Chapter 19)
________________ was a Kentucky senator who attempted to save the Union by reconciling differences between northern and southern states in the Senate proposal known as Crittenden's Compromise.
Crittenden Amendments (Chapter 19)
The ___________________, while prohibiting slavery north of 36 30, would also give federal protection in all territories south of that line.
Border States (Chapter 19)
The ___________________ in the Civil War were the states between the north and the south: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
Nationalist School (Chapter 19)
The __________________ was a historiographical school that said the Civil War extinguished slavery and marked the birth of modernity.
Eric Foner (Chapter 19)
______________ was a historian who viewed the reconstruction as a remarkable movement forward toward freedom and liberty, but believed Johnson was an inept racist.
Clara Barton (Chapter 20)
______________ launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Edwin Stanton (Chapter 20)
______________ served as the Secretary of War under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He refused to leave after Johnson fired him, thus starting the impeachment process.
Charles Francis Adams (Chapter 20)
_______________ was minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain from entering the war on the side of the South.
Trent Affair (Chapter 20)
___________ was the incident in which a Union warship stopped a British steamer and removed two Confederate diplomats.
Morill Tariff Act (Chapter 20)
The ______________ was the 1861 tariff that boosted duties to about the level of the Walker Tariff of 1846.
Draft Riots (Chapter 20)
__________________ were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
Emperor Maximilian (Chapter 20)
________________ was the French Emperor to Mexico when France invaded; France's army had to leave Mexico and return to Europe; captured by Mexican forces and executed.
Butternut region (Chapter 20)
The ________________ was a area of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where an antislavery war would have been very unpopular.
Submissionists (Chapter 20)
_______________ was a decisive name used by the secessionists for the Southern states that supported the Union before the attack on Fort Sumter.
The Alabama (Chapter 20)
__________________ was a Confederate ship built in Britain and armed after it left port so it was not considered a warship when it left port. Displayed the main foreign intervention in the war, and because it never landed in a Confederate port it yielded Britain the naval base of the Confederacy.
Dorothea Dix (Chapter 20)
_______________ was a reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Fort Sumter (Chapter 20)
_______________ was a federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War.
Laird Rams (Chapter 20)
_________________ were two iron-clad ships being constructed in Great Britain for the Confederacy. These ships contained iron rams, large-caliber guns, and were very dangerous to the Union blockade. After the war, the British government bough the two ships to ease tensions between the U.S. and England.
Cotton Famine (Chapter 20)
The __________________ caused depression in the textile industry of North West England, brought about by the interruption of baled cotton imports caused by the American Civil War.
Writ of Habeas Corpus (Chapter 20)
____________________ was a court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
Conscription (Chapter 20)
_________________ was "the draft" which required all young men to be ready for military or other service.
$300 Men (Chapter 20)
_________________ was the nickname given to men rich enough to avoid the draft.
Bounty Brokers (Chapter 20)
_______________ were people who were more for their own profit than for the war profit. They would enticed people to enlist by giving them a bonus sum of money.
Sally Tompkins (Chapter 20)
_____________ was a Confederate nurse who ran a hospital in Richmond, Virginia during the Civil War
Shoddy Millionaires (Chapter 20)
________________ was the nickname given to wealthy Northerners who put profit above patriotism by making millions selling substandard goods to the army.
59ers (Chapter 20)
_____________ was the nickname given to a prospector who went to Colorado in 1859 in search of gold.
Homestead Act of 1862 (Chapter 20)
The ____________________ allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30.
Rebel Yell (Chapter 20)
__________________ was a battle cry used by Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War they would use the yell during charges to intimidate the enemy and boost their own morale.
Mountain Whites (Chapter 20)
______________ were independent small farmers in the Appalacian Mountain Range, hated plantation owners and blacks, and viewed the impending Civil War as a "rich man's war, but a poor man's fight".
Brothers' War (Chapter 20)
____________________ was used to describe the war's burden on family members who fought for both sides.
Commerce Raiders (Chapter 20)
_________________ were warships owned and commanded by the confederates but built in British shipyards.
Greenbacks (Chapter 20)
_________________ was the name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war.
US Sanitary Commission (Chapter 20)
The _________________ was the agency that was founded by Lincoln that allowed for women to aid in the Civil War effort.
Captains of Industry (Chapter 20)
________________ were owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power.
Rag Money (Chapter 20)
______________ was the southern term for the useless money printed from the banks because of its insane inflation.
Jay Cooke and Co. (Chapter 20)
In 1873, the ___________________ was a investment bank. Once civil war was over wants north transcontinental railroad. Can only sell back 25% of stock. Cannot pay investors, people take investments out of the bank. NYSE shuts down for 10 days and unemployment up to 25%.
John Wilkes Booth (Chapter 21)
_____________________ was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Robert E. Lee (Chapter 21)
________________ was a General for the Confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
Thomas Jackson (Chapter 21)
________________ was a Confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. He earned his nickname at the Battle of First Bull Run for standing courageously against union fire. During the Battle of Chancellorsville, his own men accidently mortally wounded him.
Ulysses S. Grant (Chapter 21)
___________________ began with as a Union General. In his 1862 attack on Fort Donelson, Tenn., he produced the first major Union victory. He drove off a Confederate attack at Shiloh but was criticized for heavy Union losses. He devised the campaign to take the stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Following his victory at the Battle of Chattanooga in 1864, he was appointed commander of the Union army. While Gen. William T. Sherman made his famous march across Georgia, he attacked forces under Gen. Robert E. Lee in Virginia, bringing the war to an end in 1865.
George McClellan (Chapter 21)
_______________ was a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
William T. Sherman (Chapter 21)
________________ was a successful Union general who implemented the tactic of "total war" in order to defeat the South. Led successful military campaign to conquer Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina.
George Meade (Chapter 21)
_________________ was the leader of the Union forces when they met with Lee's army in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where the most famous Civil War battle took place.
Salmon P. Chase (Chapter 21)
__________________ was US secretary of the Treasury for the first 3 years of Abraham Lincoln's term where he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Presided over Johnson's 1868 impeachment trial.
Merrimack (Chapter 21)
The ________________ was a abandoned Union warship salvaged by the Confederacy. Enforced with iron plates to become an ironclad ship. Renamed "Virginia."
13th Amendment (Chapter 21)
The _______________ was the amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Emancipation Proclamation (Chapter 21)
The ______________ was issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free.
Union party (Chapter 21)
The _____________ was the temporary 1864 coalition of republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election.
1st Battle of Bull Run (Chapter 21)
The _____________________ was the 1st major battle of Civil War, and the Confederate's victory. The battle is also known as the first Battle of Manassas. It shattered the North's hopes of winning the war quickly.
Antietam (Chapter 21)
________________ was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
Copperheads (Chapter 21)
______________ was the group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War.
Army of the Potomac (Chapter 21)
The __________________ was the major Union army in the eastern front. It fought many battles and ultimately won the war.
Peninsula Campaign (Chapter 21)
The ________________ occurred when Union General George B. McClellan's failed effort to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital. Had McClellan taken Richmond and toppled the Confederacy, slavery would have most likely survived in the South for some time.
Total War (Chapter 21)
_________________ is the type of war in which an army destroys its opponent's ability to fight by attacking civilian and economic, as well as military, targets.
Anaconda Plan (Chapter 21)
The __________________ was the Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture of the Mississippi River, and to take an army through heart of South.
Ironclads (Chapter 21)
_______________ were wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War.
Fort Pillow (Chapter 21)
________________________ was a massacre of slaves that were killed after surrendering and being captured in a battle.
54th Massachusetts (Chapter 21)
The ________________ was the most famous African American unit that fought exceptionally well at the Battle of Fort Wagner. The unit was formed after some prompting by Frederick Douglas, and their efforts helped to convince Lincoln to expand the role of black troops in the Civil War.
Gettysburg (Chapter 21)
________________ was the most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the wars turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Chancellorsville (Chapter 21)
______________ was a major battle in the American Civil War (1863), the Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker. General Jackson was killed by friendly fire.
Oliver O. Howard (Chapter 22)
______________ was the Union general who headed the Freedmen's Bureau.
Exodusters (Chapter 22)
_________________ were African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
American Missionary Association (Chapter 22)
The _____________________ was a Protestant based abolitionist group founded in 1846. The main purpsoe was to eliminate slavery, to educate blacks, to promote racial equality and promote Christian values. It's leaders were mothodist and presbyterian, both black and white.
Tenure of Office Act (Chapter 22)
In 1867 the ____________________ was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers w/o Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
10 Percent Plan (Chapter 22)
The _________________ was a plan by Abraham Lincoln that would help restore the South by allowing a southern state to rejoin the union if at least 10% of it's voters swore loyalty to the union and if slavery were abolished. The plan also gave amnesty to some southerners.
Wade-Davis Bill (Chapter 22)
The _________________ was an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Freedmen's Bureau (Chapter 22)
The _______________ was a agency set up in 1865 to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
14th Amendment (Chapter 22)
The __________________ declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.
Seward's Folly (Chapter 22)
________________ occurred when U.S Secretary of state Henry William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia. He purchased Alaska in 1867 for $7.2 million dollars.
15th Amendment (Chapter 22)
The ________________ declared that citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude.
Thaddeus Stevens (Chapter 22)
_________________ was the leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort. Worked towards equality for Southern blacks.
Whitewashed Rebels (Chapter 22)
The ___________________ were four former confederate generals, five colonels, various members of the Richmond cabinet and Congress.
Scalawags (Chapter 22)
________________ were southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction.
Civil Rights Bill (Chapter 22)
The ___________________ was vetoed by Johnson, but passed over his veto, it conferred citizenship on Blacks, leading to the 14th Amendment.
Carpetbaggers (Chapter 22)
_______________ were Northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction.
Radical Regimes (Chapter 22)
During the _______________, Southerners had reorganized their governments and were granted their rights again.
Ku Klux Klan (Chapter 22)
The ________________ was a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Force Acts (Chapter 22)
Because of the _________________, the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
Sharecropping (Chapter 22)
__________________ was a system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops.
Black Codes (Chapter 22)
The ______________ were Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves.
Radical Republicans (Chapter 22)
The ___________________ was a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Reconstruction Act (Chapter 22)
The __________________ divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
Military Reconstruction (Chapter 22)
_______________ was a response to white efforts to undermine Reconstruction, the federal government established military rule over the former confederate states.
Congressional Reconstruction (Chapter 22)
__________________ was a process led by the Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights.
Ex parte Milligan (Chapter 22)
__________________ was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional.
Women's Loyal League (Chapter 22)
The _________________ was a organization that called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, but it was used to promote woman suffrage as well.
Union League (Chapter 22)
The ______________ was a Republican Party organizations in northern cities that became an important organizing device among freedmen in southern cities after 1865.
Literacy Tests (Chapter 22)
_______________ were tests of a voter's ability to read and write, which were often used to keep recent immigrants and blacks from voting.
Greenbacks (Chapter 23)
______________ was the name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war.
Ohio Idea (Chapter 23)
The _______________ was the proposal by midwestern Democratic delegates to redeem federal war bonds in greenbacks instead of gold, to keep more money in circulation and interest rates low.
Waving the Bloody Shirt (Chapter 23)
__________________ was an expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.
Repudiation (Chapter 23)
_______________ is the refusal to acknowledge or pay a debt or honor a contract (especially by public authorities).
Jay Cooke (Chapter 23)
____________ was a New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.
Black Friday (Chapter 23)
________________ was when Fisk and Gould bought a large amount of gold, planning to sell it for a profit. In order to lower the high price of gold, the Treasury was forced to sell $4 million in gold from its reserves.
Chester Arthur (Chapter 23)
_______________ was appointed customs collector for the port of New York; corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so he became the 21st president.
William Belknap (Chapter 23)
_________________ was Grant's secretary of war who was forced to resign after he was found to have accepted bribes from suppliers to the Indian reservations.
General Amnesty Act (Chapter 23)
The _________________ removed political disabilities from all but some 500 former Confederate leaders.
Panic of 1873 (Chapter 23)
The __________________ was a four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver).
Contraction (Chapter 23)
________________ was a policy which decreased the amount of money per capital in circulation between 1870 and 1880.
Half-Breeds (Chapter 23)
________________ favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
Civil Rights Act (Chapter 23)
In 1866 the ________________ was created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes. It also prohibited racial discrimination on jury selection. It was not really enforced and was really just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.
Tenant Farming (Chapter 23)
_________________ system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop the prefered.
Crop Lien System (Chapter 23)
In the __________________, storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The result was almost slavery for blacks.
Equal Protection Clause (Chapter 23)
The ________________ is the14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination.
Roscoe Conkling (Chapter 23)
_________________ was a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms, it was thought that the killing of Garfield was done in Conkling's behest.
Jim Fisk (Chapter 23)
_________________ was a bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S. gold market nearly succeeded in 1869.
Grover Cleveland (Chapter 23)
________________ was a Democrat (1885-1889) and (1893-1897) his presidency represented no sharp break with the conservative policies of his predecessors except in opposing governmental favors to business but was noteworthy for railroad regulation and tariff reform. He had a strictly limited view of the government's role in both economic and social matters- limited government. Dawes Act and Pullman Strike.
Jay Gould (Chapter 23)
_______________ was a United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market.
Rutherford Hayes (Chapter 23)
___________________ was a Republican governor from Ohio. He had spent majority of his term as governor reforming the government and politics within Ohio. He was elected president in 1876 by the Compromise of 1877. He was known as the "caretaker" president because he just took care of the country.
James Garfield (Chapter 23)
_________________ was elected to presidency in 1880. He barely won the popular vote but won by a huge margin in the electoral college. He was assassinated so Stalwarts could be in power in the government. This brought about reforms in the spoils systems.
Cheap Money (Chapter 23)
________________ was the theory that more printed money meant cheaper money. Therefore prices would be the same with more money out, making it easy to pay off debts. Creditors thought the exact opposite, however, thinking that it would mean harder to pay debts.
Hard Money (Chapter 23)
_________________ is political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amounts and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds.
Gilded Age (Chapter 23)
The ______________ was a period in US history (1869-1889) that seemed alright on the outside but was politically corrupt internally. This period, although tainted by various political schemes, led to the development of many new industries.
Spoils System (Chapter 23)
The ____________________ is the practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs.
Resumption Act (Chapter 23)
The _______________________ required the gov't to withdraw greenbacks from circulation, and to redeem the paper money with its equivalent in gold at face value, starting in 1879.
Stalwart (Chapter 23)
A ___________________ is someone who is strong and sturdy; brave; resolute; a brave, strong person; a strong supporter; one who takes an uncompromising position.
Tweed Ring (Chapter 23)
The _________________ was the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing.
Whisky Ring (Chapter 23)
The ___________________ was a scandal where a group of govt. officials cheated the govt. of millions of dollars.
Greenback Labor Party (Chapter 23)
The _____________________ was a political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
Compromise of 1877 (Chapter 23)
The ____________________ ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river.
Pendleton Act (Chapter 23)
The ______________ was passed in 1883, and created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Liberal Republicans (Chapter 23)
______________________ were formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party), which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
Bland Allison Act (Chapter 23)
The _____________________________ was a 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices.
Credit Mobilier (Chapter 23)
____________________ was a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Great Railroad Strike (Chapter 23)
The ________________________ began with a group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse was torched. Their violent acts led them to be suppressed by the government, while damaging the reputation of unions.
Chinese Exclusion Act (Chapter 23)
The ____________________ was passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.
Mugwumps (Chapter 23)
____________________ were Republican political activists who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate, James Blaine.
Union Pacific Railroad (Chapter 24)
The __________________ was a railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Ogden, Utah.
Central Pacific Railroad (Chapter 24)
The _________________ was a railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Ogden, UTAH
Big Four (Chapter 24)
The _______________ was the nickname given to the chief financial backers of the railroads, which included Leland Stanford and Collis P. Huntington.
Thomas Edison (Chapter 24)
__________________ was a American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
John Pierpont Morgan (Chapter 24)
__________________ was a American financier and industrialist who organized the US Steel corporation after buying it from Carnegie.
Terence V. Powderly (Chapter 24)
______________ was an Irish-American leader of the Knights who won many strikes for the eight-hour work day. He led the Knights to become a major power in gaining rights for the workers in factories.
Andrew Carnegie (Chapter 24)
__________________ was a Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
John Altgeld (Chapter 24)
_______________ was governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
Interstate Commerce Act (Chapter 24)
Approved on February 4, 1887, the _________________ created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. With this act the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation.
Trust (Chapter 24)
A _________________ is a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service.
Bessemer Process (Chapter 24)
The _________________ is a way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Drake's Folly (Chapter 24)
________________ occurred in 1859 in Pennsylvania when the first oil well was drilled and it poured out its "black gold."
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (Chapter 24)
The ________________________ was the first national legislation in the world against monopoly; prohibited trusts, restraint of trade, and monopolization, but the law was vague and ineffective; tycoons found a way to get out. However, it managed to curb labor unions or labor combinations that were deemed to be restraining trade.
Gibson Girl (Chapter 24)
The ___________________ was the idealized American girl of the 1890s as pictured by a magazine image that showed that woman could make it big and did have buying power, created by Charles Dana Gibson.
Lockout (Chapter 24)
A _____________ is when management closes the doors to the place of work and keeps the workers from entering until an agreement is reached.
Company Town (Chapter 24)
A _________________ is a town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.
National Labor Union (Chapter 24)
The _______________ was founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks.
American Federation of Labor (Chapter 24)
The _____________________ was a federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor.
Haymarket Riot (Chapter 24)
The _________________ was a demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Knights of Labor (Chapter 24)
The _______________ was a labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes.
Samuel Gompers (Chapter 24)
__________________ was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Mary Harris Jones (Chapter 24)
______________ was a labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also faught for child labor laws.
Cornelius Vanderbilt (Chapter 24)
_________________ was a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
John D. Rockefeller (Chapter 24)
____________________ was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history.
Jay Gould (Chapter 24)
_______________ was a United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market.
Vertical Integration (Chapter 24)
_________________ is the absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution.
Horizontal Integration (Chapter 24)
_____________________ is the absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level.
Pool (Chapter 24)
_________________ was the system in which several railroad companies agreed to divide up the business in an area.
Interlocking Directorate (Chapter 24)
__________________ is a situation occurring when the majority of members of the boards of directors of competing corporations are the same; in effect, having one group of people manage both companies.
Standard Time (Chapter 24)
__________________ divided the country into 4 time zones to make the RR times less confusing.
US Steel (Chapter 24)
_________________ was the largest steel company of the US, created by J.P. Morgan by merging Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel and several other steel companies together; at the time, the largest corporation in existence.
Gospel of Wealth (Chapter 24)
____________________ was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
The Grange (Chapter 24)
_________________ was originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
William Graham Sumner (Chapter 24)
____________________ was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Yellow Dog Contract (Chapter 24)
A _________________________ was an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
American Federation of Labor (Chapter 24)
The _____________________________ was a federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor.
New South (Chapter 24)
The ___________ referred to the rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy.
Northern Pacific Railroad (Chapter 24)
The ____________________ was the northernmost transcontinental railroad organized by James J. Hill.
James J. Hill (Chapter 24)
____________________ was a railroad entrepreneur who built and operated the Great Northern Railroad from St. Paul, Minnesota to Everett, Washington; without any federal grants or subsidies, the Great Northern Railroad made money by shipping goods to Asia, GNR became the most successful transcontinental railroad and the only one that wasn't eventually forced into bankruptcy.
Wedding of the Rails (Chapter 24)
_____________________ was the nickname for the site where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific met in Ogden, Utah.
Pullman Palace Cars (Chapter 24)
________________ were introduced in the 1860s these were billed as "gorgeous traveling hotels" by some. Others called them "wheeled torture chambers" and potential funeral pyres.
Stock Watering (Chapter 24)
______________________, originally referring to cattle, was the term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerating the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value.
Colored National Labor Union (Chapter 24)
The ______________________ was a black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late 1860s.
Scabs (Chapter 24)
__________ were strikebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike.
Pittsburgh Plus Pricing (Chapter 24)
The __________________ system was designed by steel lords (like Carnegie and Morgan) in the North to keep the South at an economic disadvantage in the steel industry. The southern coal and iron ore deposits were close to where it could be processed, which would give the South an advantage since they would have to pay less money for shipping. The steel lords put pressure on the railroads to charge the goods with a fictional fee as if they had been shipped from Pittsburgh. It was also, in an indirect way, punishment of the South during the reconstruction after the Civil War.
Birmingham Steel (Chapter 24)
_____________________ was the New South's attempt in the iron and steel industry, the iron deposits "ill suited" for kind of steel in demand, later sold and controlled by North.
Piecework (Chapter 24)
___________________ is a system in which workers are paid not by the time worked, but by the number of items they produce.
James B. Duke (Chapter 24)
________________ was the owner of American Tobacco Company, which established a virtual monopoly over the processing of raw tobacco into marketable materials.
Herbert Spencer (Chapter 24)
___________ was a English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies.
Social Darwinism (Chapter 24)
__________________ is the application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Russel Conwell (Chapter 24)
________________ was a pro-business clergyman whose "Acres of Diamonds" speeches criticized the poor.