APUSH All Terms (Chapter 1-24)

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All terms from all chapters

Mississippian Culture (Chapter 1)

The ________ was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Chapter 1)

_________ were the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition. They united Spain and sent Christopher Columbus on his expedition in 1492. They originally sent him to find a water route to India for trade but found the Americas instead.

Taino (Chapter 1)

The _______ were Native Americans that lived in Hispaniola. This is where Christopher Columbus first landed on his expedition. Within 50 years of Spanish arrival, enslavement and disease killed nearly 1 million Taino Indians.

Encomienda (Chapter 1)

_________ was a grant of authority over a population of Native Americans in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.

Juan de Onate (Chapter 1)

_________ was a descendant of a wealthy Spanish family who, in 1598, took control of the Rio Grande region and the Pueblo region of what is now New Mexico

Conquistadores (Chapter 1)

Spanish soldiers led by Cortes and fueled by greed for riches. Between 1519 and 1521, the __________ conquered Tenochtitlan and the Aztec empire while killing thousands of Native Americans in what is present day Mexico.

Juan Ponce de Leon (Chapter 1)

________ was a Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.

Ferdinand Magellan (Chapter 1)

________ was a Portuguese captain in Spanish service; began the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim possession of the Philippines.

Francisco Coronado (Chapter 1)

A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, _________ led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.

Hernando de Soto (Chapter 1)

________ was a Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa (Chapter 1)

In 1513, a Spanish explorer named _________ traveled across modern day Panama and discovred the Pacific Ocean. He claimed every land touched by the ocean for Spain.

Bartolome de Las Casas (Chapter 1)

Spanish missionary (priest) named ________ was an "upstander" for the Tainos. Published several books on the mistreatment of the Indians.

Mound Builders (Chapter 1)

The ____________ lived in the Ohio River Valley and were the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest. They did sustain some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting into their way of life during the first millennium AD. The Mississippian settlement at Cohokia, near present-day East St. Louis, Ill., was perhaps home to 40,000 people in about AD 1100. But mysteriously, around the year 1300, both the Mound Builder and the Mississippian cultures had fallen to decline.

Pueblo (Chapter 1)

1st American corn growers. The __________ lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs. They also had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from the rivers to grow corn.

Crusaders (Chapter 1)

Indirect discoverers of the Americas. After the _______ were foiled at taking the Holy Lands from Muslims, they brought Asian goods back to Europe. Europeans wanted more of the rare items but the goods were too expensive to transport over land so countries began looking for a sea route to India. Then Spain attempted to find a sea route but Columbus discovered the Americas.

Anasazi (Chapter 1)

The _______ were a Native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and Northern New Mexico and Arizona from about 100 AD. The descendants include the present-day Pueblo people. Culture includes Basket Maker phase, and later marked by creation of cliff dwellings and ecpert artisanship.

L'Anse aux Meadows (Chapter 1)

_________ was the sight where Norse seafarers landed in present day Newfoundland but was abandoned. This was the first sign of exploration before Columbus in the Americas.

Christopher Columbus (Chapter 1)

_________ was a Italian mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization. When trying to find a sea route to India he discovered the Americas. His discovery changed the global economy and started international trade between continents.

Treaty of Tordesillas (Chapter 1)

In 1494, the ____________ was an agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Giovanni Caboto (Chapter 1)

___________ was a Italian explorer who in 1497 sailed from England to Newfoundland. An Italian navigator and explorer commonly credited as the 1st European to discover North America.

Battle of Acoma (Chapter 1)

Battle in 1599, Spanish severed one foot off of each survivor of the Pueblos. They proclaimed the area to be the province of New Mexico in 1609 and found its caapital at Santa Fe 1610. It was known as the _____________.

Mestizos (Chapter 1)

The _________ were people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.

Hernan Cortes (Chapter 1)

_____________ led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. He was responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521.

Tidewater Region (Chapter 1)

The __________ was a narrow eastern coastal plain, creased by many river valleys, sloped gently upward to the timeworn ridges of the Appalachians

Malinche (Chapter 1)

_________ was one of the 20 women given to Cortés as a peace offering from city leaders on the coast of the Yucatán. She could speak the language of the people farther up the coast and translated for Aguilar, who then translated for Cortés. She became one of his closest advisors. She gave Cortes the advantage over the Aztecs because she could communicate with other tribes. Cortes built his Native American allies with her help.

Quetzalcoatl (Chapter 1)

According to legend, after his exile in Tula, _________ traveled east, crossing the sea on a raft of snakes. He would return one day, bringing a new reign of light and peace. When the Spanish conquistadors came, the Aztecs believed that Cortes was this god and welcomed him which led to the downfall of the Aztec empire.

Maize (Chapter 1)

________ was the main food source for many Native Americans. It fed millions and helped sustain large, dense populations. Started in Mexico and spread to the North American native tribes.

Cahokia (Chapter 1)

_______ was an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.

Vinland (Chapter 1)

__________ means "Land of Wine", given by Leif Ericsson to the present-day Canadian province of Newfoundland. It was briefly settled by Norse seafarers before being abandoned.

Sugar Revolution (Chapter 1)

The ____________ refers to the soaring demand for a sweetener that resulted in high profits for producers, large scale plantation production in Brazil and the West Indies, and increased slave trade that resulted in about millions of Africans being brought to the new world.

Tenochtitlan (Chapter 1)

___________ was the capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. It is now present day Mexico City.

St. Augustine (Chapter 1)

__________ was built by the Spanish in Florida to block French ambitions and protect sea-lanes to the Caribbean.

Pope's Rebellion (Chapter 1)

The ________ was a Indian uprising in 1680 where pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans. They destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of spanish settlers.

Three Sister Agriculture (Chapter 1)

The __________ was a Native American method to grow food. It involved the growth of beans on the treillis of the cornstalks while squash retained moisture within the soil. This rich diet produced high population densities such as the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee Indians.

Junipero Serra (Chapter 1)

_______________ was the leader of a group of Spanish missionaries who founded a chain of twenty-one missions beginning in 1769 at San Diego and stretching north of the San Francisco Bay. These missions gathered nomadic Indians into missions and taught them the values of Christianity.

Mission Indians (Chapter 1)

____________ were natives of California who were taught horticulture and arts and crafts by the Spanish missionaries; converted to Christianity and abandoned their culture.

Franciscans (Chapter 1)

____________ were Spanish missionaries who were responsible for establishing missions along the Californian coast and helping Pueblo Indians.

Black Legend (Chapter 1)

The _____________ was a idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.

Hispaniola (Chapter 1)

__________ was the area where Taino Native Americans lived. Within 50 years of Spanish arrival, the population decreased from 1 million to 200 because of conquest and disease.

Robert La Salle (Chapter 1)

___________ was a Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.

Norse (Chapter 1)

The ________ were seafarers from Scandanavia who landed in L'Anse aux Meadows, present-day Newfoundland. They settled briefly before abandoning the settlement.

Sir Walter Raleigh (Chapter 2)

_________ was a English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."

Surplus Population (Chapter 2)

England was overpopulated at the time of colonization which provided many laborers willing to work. Laborers were sent to the New World to start settlements. The extra population in England was known as a _____________.

Starving Time (Chapter 2)

The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the _________ to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

2nd Anglo-Powhatan War (Chapter 2)

The _________ was a last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement. (1644-46)

Roanoke Island (Chapter 2)

____________ was the 2nd attempt at English colonization. Sir Walter Raleigh settled here in 1585. The colony eventually vanished.

Irish Tactics (Chapter 2)

____________ was the harsh treatment of the Indians intoduced by Lord de La Warr, burning houses, stealing food, used by English against Irish.

Three D's (Chapter 2)

Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability all contributed to the near extinction of the Indians near the English colonies. The ____________ described ravaged the Indians population. The Powhatan Confederacy lacked unity and the English settlers learned everything they needed to know from the Indians and didn't need them anymore.

Virginia (Chapter 2)

________ was the first of the 13 colonies to be established. There was conflict here between the Powhatan natives and the settlers. Virginia also became the first colony to export Tobacco which kept the colony alive financially.

Powhatan (Chapter 2)

________ was the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony.

1st Anglo-Powhatan War (Chapter 2)

The _________ was a result of harsh treatment to the Indians made by the English. The leader at the time was Lord De La Warr. He introduced "Irish Tactics." They raided villages, burned houses... etc. The first war ended with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas in 1614.

Powhatan Confederacy (Chapter 2)

The __________ was a alliance of Native American tribes living in the region of the initial Virginia settlement. Powhatan, leader of this alliance, tried to live in peace with the English settlers when the arrived in 1607. However, the confederacy lacked unity which was one factor that led to the downfall of the tribes.

Barbados Slave Code (Chapter 2)

Established in 1661, it gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions. The code spread from the West Indies to Carolina which was the start of using African slaves on Southern plantations.

Tuscaroras (Chapter 2)

In 1711, the _____________ attacked North Carolina, the Carolinians responded by crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to slavery and leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois.

John Smith (Chapter 2)

___________ took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.

Lord Baltimore (Chapter 2)

____________ founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.

Lords Proprietors (Chapter 2)

The _________ were the 8 supporters to whom King Charles II of England gave a grant to establish a colony that included land that later became South Carolina.

Handsome Lake (Chapter 2)

In 1799, Angelic figures in traditional Iroquois garb appeared to ______________ and said that if the Iroquois did not mend their immoral ways then they would die out. He worked to revive old Iroquois customs and affirm family values, as well as forsake alcohol.

Primogeniture (Chapter 2)

_________ was the system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.

Virginia Company (Chapter 2)

The _______ was a joint stock company that received a charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies and guaranteed the English would have same rights in New world as in England.

Algonquians (Chapter 2)

The __________ were a Indian tribe that liven near Great Lakes; became a regional power by absorbing surrounding bands; forced the English to conform to Indian ways which created a zone where both Europeans and Native Americans were compelled ot accommodate one another.

Restoration Period (Chapter 2)

In England, the _______________ followed the restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660; England was able to continue empire building and royal involvement overseas.

Iroquios Confederacy (Chapter 2)

The _____________ was a powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida. They also made many European allies such as the French.

John Rolfe (Chapter 2)

_____________ was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Charles II (Chapter 2)

____________ was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.

Savannah Indians (Chapter 2)

The _____________ was a coastal tribe of Indians who aided the Carolina settlers in finding suitable Native American slaves. However, in 1707, the Savannah tribe ended the alliance and attempted to migrate to Pennsylvania where they were promised more equality. However, the Carolinians decided to wipe out the Savannahs before they could migrate and had virtually succeeded by 1710.

Yamasees (Chapter 2)

The _________ were defeated by North Carolina's citizens. They were the last Indian obstacle between the colonist's and their expansion south.

John Wesley (Chapter 2)

___________ was a missionary who came to Savannah, Georgia to spread the word of Christ among debtors and Indians but when he returned to England, went on to found the Methodist Church.

Joint-Stock Company (Chapter 2)

A ____________ was a company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

Seminary of Sedition (Chapter 2)

____________ was the term used by King James I to describe the House of Burgesses.

Deganawidah (Chapter 2)

________________ was one of the two leaders of the Iroquios Confederacy.

Soil Butchery (Chapter 2)

Crops such as tobacco used all of the nutrients in the soil, so settlers were forced to move westward for more fertile land. This was known as ______________.

Indentured Servant (Chapter 2)

A _______________ was a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.

Hiawatha (Chapter 2)

_____________ was a Indian from the Iroquois tribe who was one of two men who persuaded five nations to unite and work together as a group.

Lord De La Warr (Chapter 2)

______________ was the new governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.

James Oglethorpe (Chapter 2)

______________ was the founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

House of Burgesses (Chapter 2)

The ___________ was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Act of Toleration (Chapter 2)

The ________________ was a legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.

William Berkeley (Chapter 4)

A Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. _______________ enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

Nathaniel Bacon (Chapter 4)

_________ was a farmer in the backcountry, his resentment of Berkeley and the unbalanced power of the Virginia government led to a rebellion by him and other backcountry farmers.

Headright System (Chapter 4)

The ___________ declared that parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres were to be given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. This was used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Middle Passage (Chapter 4)

The __________ was part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.

Bacon's Rebellion (Chapter 4)

___________ was a uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Freedom Dues (Chapter 4)

__________ was the dues of a master to his indentured servant after the servant's period of indentured servitude. They included simple clothing, tools, and sometimes a parcel of land.

Royal African Company (Chapter 4)

The ___________ was a organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business.

Gullah (Chapter 4)

___________ was a combination of English and West African languages spoken by African Americans in the South Carolina colony.

Chesapeake (Chapter 4)

The _________ was a area in Virginia which was a very unhealthy place to live during the 1600's. Children usually didn't make it to adulthood. It was mostly used for tobacco growth but many of the nutrients in the soil were used up by the tobacco.

White Slaves (Chapter 4)

Chesapeake planters brought ____________ to the region. They represented more than 3/4 of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland in the 17th century.

Pennsylvania Dutch (Chapter 5)

The _________ were known as large numbers of German speaking protestants. They were called this because people coundn't pronounce the word Deutsch, which means German.

Scots-Irish (Chapter 5)

The __________ were a group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia.

Shenandoah Valley (Chapter 5)

The ________ was the site where most German and Scots-Irish settled in Virginia.

Great Wagon Road (Chapter 5)

The __________ was a old Iroquiois trail that German and Scotch-Irish settlers followed on the way to Philadelphia. They traveld west into the backcountry, which is an area of land along the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.

Paxton Boys (Chapter 5)

The _____________ were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Regulator Movement (Chapter 5)

The ______________ was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.

Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur (Chapter 5)

____________ was a Frenchman who settled in New York territory in 1759; he wrote a book called Letters of an American Farmer that established a new standard for writing about America.

Jayle Birds (Chapter 5)

____________ were British convicts who were shipped to America involuntarily. They included robbers, rapists, and murderers, but some were simply highly respectable citizens who had simply had been victimized by the strict English penal code.

Diphtheria (Chapter 5)

___________ was a disease that killed thousands of colonists in the 1730's because of lack of knowledge.

Triangular Trade (Chapter 5)

The ______________ was a practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.

Rum/Slaves/Molasses (Chapter 5)

__________________ were the 3 components in the triangular trade. Each was transported to another continent for profit.

Naval Stores (Chapter 5)

______________ were materials used to build and maintain ships, such as tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine. This was another reason the New England colonies were successful.

Molasses Act (Chapter 5)

The ___________ was a British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.

Taverns (Chapter 5)

________________ were commonly found throughout the colonies. They were for amusement and gossip. They were helpful for freedom of speech and democracy which contributed to the American Revolution.

Established Churches (Chapter 5)

______________ was the term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics.

Anglican Church (Chapter 5)

The ______________ was one of the tax-supported churches in 1775. It belonged to the Church of England, which was the official faith in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York. It mainly served as a prop of England authority. This faith was far less intense than the other established church, the Congregational Church.

Congregationalist Church (Chapter 5)

The ____________ was a Calvinist church founded by Puritans that was established in the New World. It was popular in the New England colonies.

Dead Dogs (Chapter 5)

__________ were people who droned out tedious, over-erudite sermons from Puritan pulpits.

Arminianism (Chapter 5)

__________ was the belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.

Great Awakening (Chapter 5)

The _____________ was a religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

Jonathan Edwards (Chapter 5)

________________ was the most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

George Whitefield (Chapter 5)

____________ was a preacher who traveled throughout the colonies: He said the key test of election (salvation) is an emotional conversion experience.

Old Lights (Chapter 5)

______________ were Orthodox clergymen who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and the antics of the Great Awakening.

New Lights (Chapter 5)

______________ were revivalist ministers who emphasized emotive spirituality and encouraged missionary work among the natives, as well as founding many long-standing educational institutes, such as Princeton, Brown, and Dartmouth.

Princeton/Brown/Rutgers/Dartmouth (Chapter 5)

___________________ were the four colleges that grew directly out of the Great Awakening revival. Known as some of the most advanced institutions in the world.

John Trumbull (Chapter 5)

_________________ was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War famous for his historical paintings including his Declaration of Independence.

Charles Wilson Peale (Chapter 5)

_____________ was the colonial painter best known for his portraits of George Washington who also ran a museum for stuffed birds and practiced dentistry.

Benjamin West (Chapter 5)

______________ was a English painter who became the second president of the Royal Academy.

Phillis Wheatley (Chapter 5)

______________ was an American poet who was the first recognized Black writer in America.

Poor Richard's Almanack (Chapter 5)

_________ was created by Benjamin Franklin. It contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. It was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.

Benjamin Franklin (Chapter 5)

____________ was an American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac, he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution. His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.

John Peter Zenger (Chapter 5)

__________ was a journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press.

Seditious Libel (Chapter 5)

_________ is a written language that seeks to convince others to engage in the overthrow of a government.

Royal Colonies (Chapter 5)

____________ were colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.

Proprietary Colonies (Chapter 5)

____________ were colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.

Popery (Chapter 5)

_____________ was the fear that the pope would send representatives and bring Catholicism back to the colonies, leading to the eradication of "Catholic" holidays, such as Christmas.

Gary Nash (Chapter 5)

_____________ was a post-revisionist author of the "The Urban Crucible" who emphasized the role of growing economic distres in colonial cities in creating a climate in which revolutionary sentiment could flourish.

Edmund S. Morgan (Chapter 5)

______________ was an important figure in early American history who was a Professor of History at Yale University and argued that Virginians in the 1650s--and for the next two centuries--turned to slavery and a racial divide as an alternative to class conflict.

Huguenots (Chapter 6)

_____________ were French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.

Edict of Nantes (Chapter 6)

In 1598, the _________________ promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants.

Quebec (Chapter 6)

__________ was the first permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain.

Samuel de Champlain (Chapter 6)

___________ was a leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.

New France (Chapter 6)

_______________ was formed from small French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system. Created by Samuel de Champlain.

Coureurs de Bois (Chapter 6)

________________ were French fur traders and trappers who went far into the wilderness of Quebec and developed extensive trade. The traders formed partnerships with the Indians and lived among them and some even married the Indian women. The fur trade they established helped begin the creation of French agricultural estates along the St. Lawrence River and the creation of military and trade centers at Quebec and Montreal.

Voyageurs (Chapter 6)

______________ were French-Canadian explorers, adventurers, and traders. They carried fur and goods in a canoe along the rivers to trade.

Montreal (Chapter 6)

____________ was a French city in New France that fell to Britain in 1760 which marked the end of the French in the New World.

Antoine Cadillac (Chapter 6)

_____________ was a Frenchman who founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers making a play for the Ohio Valley.

Louisiana (Chapter 6)

____________ was the name Robert de La Salle gave to his claim of the Mississippi River and its surroundings. It provided transportation for trade.

King William's War (Chapter 6)

_______________ was also known as the War of the league of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.

Queen Anne's War (Chapter 6)

(1702-1713), ____________ was the second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.

Peace of Utrecht (Chapter 6)

The _____________ ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.

Acadia (Chapter 6)

__________ was a French-speaking but British-controlled region near Nova Scotia. The English expelled peaceful Acadian farmers from their homeland during the French and Indian war. Many resettled in Louisiana, becoming Cajuns.

War of Jenkins's Ear (Chapter 6)

The ______________ was triggered in 1739 when a British captain had his ear sliced off by Spanish authorities. Parliament then declared war on Spain as a retribution for general mistreatment of the English while in Spain. This was the first major war after the War of Spanish Succession and the first in a long line of wars in the 18th century (1739-1763, with peace between 1748-1756) over the power of Prussia and the control of overseas trade.

King George's War (Chapter 6)

____________ was a land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne's War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia.

Louisbourg (Chapter 6)

_____________ was a strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759.

Ohio Valley (Chapter 6)

The __________ was a region that was disputed by British, French and Indians; Indian tribes lived in the valley while France claimed it as territory and English settlement was expanding into it; tension eventually caused war to begin.

French and Indian War (Chapter 6)

The _______________ was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Seven Years' War (Chapter 6)

The ________________ was also known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

Albany Congress (Chapter 6)

In 1754, the _____________ urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. The congress drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. It was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.

Edward Braddock (Chapter 6)

___________ was a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.

Regulars (Chapter 6)

___________ were trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts. During the French and Indian War, British generals, used to commanding experienced regulars, often showed contempt for ill-trained colonial militiamen.

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