science that draws on the methods and knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics, and biology to study all aspects of the world ocean.
measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape or topography of the ocean floor.
steep gradient that leads to the deep-ocean floor and marks the seaward edge of the continental shelf.
seaward extension of a valley that was cut on the continental shelf during a time when sea level was lower—a canyon carved into the outer continental shelf, slope, and rise by turbidity currents.
the downslope movement of dense, sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged and thrown into suspension.
Ocean basin floor
the area of the deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge.
very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying at the foot of the continental rise.
an isolated volcanic peak that rises at least 1000 meters above the deep-ocean floor, and a guyot is an eroded, submerged seamount.
found near the center of most ocean basins. It is an interconnected system of underwater mountains that have developed on newly formed ocean crust.
the process by which plate tectonics produces new oceanic lithosphere at ocean ridges.
consist primarily of mineral grains that were eroded from continental rocks and transported to the ocean.
biogenous sediment composed of silica-based shells of single-celled animals and algae.
consists of minerals that crystallize directly from ocean water through various chemical reactions.