Nutrition and Wellness (Comprehensive- ALL UNITS!)

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Terms from all units

Culture

everything about the way a group of people lives

Emotional health

the overall condition of a person's emotions

Health

combined state of physical, psychological, emotional, and social well being

Lifestyle

everything about the way one person, a couple, or a family choose to live

Nutrition

the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body

Organic food

a food produced without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or growth hormones

Physical health

the overall condition of a person's body

Psychological health

the overall condition of a person's attitudes

Social health

the overall condition of a person's ability to relate to others around them

Technology

the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems

Wellness

the process of acquiring and maintaining physical, psychological, emotional, and social health

Amino acid

one of the building blocks of protein molecules

Antioxidant

a substance that helps protect your body from cell damage that can lead to health problems

Atherosclerosis

hardened and narrowed arteries caused by plaque deposits

Carbohydrate

an essential nutrient that is the body's main source of energy; includes sugars and starches

Cholesterol

a waxy liquid found in every cell of the body; found in foods from animal sources

Complete protein

a protein that contains all the essential amino acids

Complex carbohydrates

starches; carbohydrates made of many sugars attached together

Dehydration

a state in which the body contains a lower than normal amount of body fluid

Dental caries

tooth decay

Diabetes mellitus

lack of, or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream

Dietary fiber

plant material that cannot be digested

Diuretic

a substance that increases urine production

Essential amino acid

an amino acid that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet

Fat

a nutrient that provides a concentrated source of energy, and helps protect the body from sudden changes in outside temperature

Fat soluble vitamin

a vitamin that dissolves in fats; A,D,E, and K

HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)

picks up cholesterol from around the body and transports it back to the liver for removal from the body

Hypoglycemia

low blood glucose levels

Incomplete protein

a protein that is missing one or more of the essential amino acids

Lactose intolerance

inability to digest lactose

LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)

carries cholesterol made by the liver to the blood cells

Macromineral

a mineral required in the diet in an amount of 100 milligrams or more per day

Micromineral

a mineral required in the diet in an amount less than 100 mg

Non essential amino acid

an amino acid that can be synthesized by the body

Nutrient

a chemical substance in food that helps to maintain the body

Phytochemicals

enhancing non-nutrient compounds in plant foods that are active in the body at the cellular level

Protein

one of the six basic nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; the body uses it for growth and maintenance

Saturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that has no double bonds in its chemical structure and carries a full load of hydrogen atoms; solid at room temperature.

Simple carbohydrates

sugars; carbohydrates made of one or two sugar units

Trans-fatty acid

a fatty acid with an odd molecule shape that forms when oils are partially hydrogenated

Starch

a polysaccharide that is the storage form of energy in plants; a complex carbohydrate found in foods such as potatoes, corn, rice, grits, pasta,oatmeal, and cornmeal

Water soluble vitamin

a vitamin that dissolves in water and is not stored in the body; examples include vitamin C or B complex

Unsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that has at least one double bond between two carbon atoms in a carbon atom chain and is missing at least two hydrogen atoms; is liquid at room temperature

Anorexia nervosa

a psychological disorder in which one eats very little or refuses to eat

Binge eating disorder

a psychological disorder in which one binges but does not purge or exercise excessively

Bulimia nervosa

a psychological disorder in which one repeatedly binges and then purges

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

a set of guidelines about food choices developed by the US government

Eating disorder

extreme, unhealthy behavior relating to food, eating and weight

Food additive

a substance added to food products that causes desired changes in the products

Food drug interaction

a physical or chemical effect a drug has on a food or a food has on a drug

Genetic engineering

the science of changing the genetic makeup of an organism

Irradiation

a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms

MyPyramid

USDA's guide for a personalized approach to healthy eating and physical activity; found at www.mypyramid.gov

Aerobic activity

physical activity that requires oxygen as it works the heart and lungs

Anabolic steroid

an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body

Anaerobic activity

an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it

Balance

being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body (see also Coordination)

Body composition

the percentage of different types of tissues in the body, such as fat, muscle, and bone

Carbohydrate loading

a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy

Cardio respiratory endurance

how well the heart and lungs can keep up with physical activity

Coordination

being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body

Electrolytes

sodium, chloride, and potassium working together to maintain the body's fluid balance

Endurance

the ability to keep working the muscles without becoming overly tired

Energy balance

the point at which the energy from the food eaten equals the energy used by the body

Fad diets

weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and are often based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promises of immediate weight loss

Minerals

nutrients that regulate the body processes or become a part of body tissues

Intensity

the speed and power of movement during physical activities

Physical activity

the use of muscles to move the body

Physical fitness

a state in which all body systems function together efficiently

Sedentary

physically inactive

Strength

power to work the muscles against resistance

Target heart rate

the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscle receives the best workout; 60 to 90 percent of maximum heart rate

Flexibility

the ability to move muscles and joints through a full range of motion

Vegetarianism

practice of eating a diet consisting entirely or largely of food from plant sources

Vitamins

nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes

Sugars

a collective term used to refer to all the monosaccharides and disaccharides

Body Mass Index (BMI)

a calculation of body weight and height used to define underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity

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