A(n) __________ specialty, pictorial needlework, gained such fame that it came to be called __________.
English; opus anglicanum
The Book of Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux (page 550) by __________ contains special prayers to be recited during the day and into the evening.
In Northern Europe, particularly Germany, devotional images which depict Mary mourning her dead son, Jesus, are known as __________.
The city council of Siena commissioned__________ to fresco the city hall with scenes of good and bad government.
Wealthy Italian families added __________ to their homes, both for the purpose of defense and to symbolize their power.
The transformation of the Italo-Byzantine style can be detected in the Virgin and Child Enthroned (Fig. 17-5) by __________.
The __________, surrounded by a court of angels and Siena's patron saints, are the subject of the Maestà's (Figs 17-11a and 17-11b) central panel.
Virgin and Christ Child
The term "maniera greca" refers to the ___________ influence seen in Italian painting throughout the fourteenth century.
The term "modeling" refers to ___________________, which allows artists to simulate three-dimensional forms in painted figures.
the use of light and dark pigment tones
The recognizable cityscape in Ambrogio Lorenzetti's The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country (Fig. 17-15) is a tribute to his patron_____________.
The Siena City Council (The Nine)
The _____________style seen in the great east window of Exeter Cathedral (Fig. 17-17) paved the way for the regularity, balanced horizontal and vertical lines, and plain wall or window surfaces that characterize Renaissance architecture in England.
Which of the following is NOT depicted in Ambrogio Lorenzetti's Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country (Fig. 17-15)?
portraits of Sienna's civic leaders
According to the artist Cennino Cennini, painting on panel may involve all of the following EXCEPT___________.
Which of the following does NOT apply to Giotto's frescoes of the Scrovegni Chapel (Fig. 17-7)?
Their placement complements the building's architectural details.
What theme was most popular for the narrative images decorating personal luxury items such as small chests, mirror backs and combs?
Cistercians did NOT rely on __________to achieve beauty in their architecture.
B. elaborately carved and painted figural decoration
Intellectual life in the Romanesque period involved the establishment of the first universities in the cities of __________, __________, __________, and __________.
Bologna; Paris; Oxford; Cambridge
The church of Sant Vincenc (Figs 15-3) is an example of the "First Romanesque" because _____________.
it relies on stone-vaulting and masonry construction
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Fig. 15-11) is actually the __________ of the Cathedral complex at Pisa.
Durham Cathedral (Fig. 15-18) introduced a new system of masonry __________, which would become a hallmark of later Gothic architecture.
ribbed groin vaults
In the Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac (Fig. 15-22,) the image of __________ dominates the tympanum.
Christ in Majesty
The Romanesque technique of portraying narrative scenes in the geometric confines of column capitals is called a(n) __________.
The nave of the Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe (Fig. 15-14) shows the biblical story of _________.
Tower of Babel
What was the motivation for many churches to alter the traditional basic basilica plan by adding transepts with eastern chapels that led to an ambulatory with radiating chapels around the apse?
the need to accommodate pilgrims
What architectural element of Romanesque portals was used to depict the most important imagery?
What architectural feature of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption in Pisa (Fig. 15-11) is distinctive of Tuscan churches?
the marble facing of the exterior
During the Romanesque period, ________ largely replaced mosaics on the walls of churches outside of Rome.
Probably made by Anglo-Saxon women, the Bayeux Embroidery (page 484) was produced by what technique?
stem and laid-and-couched stitches
Which of the following contributed to the exchange of artistic styles during the Romanesque period?
all of the above
Some scholars suggest a relationship between the geometric order underlying Gothic cathedrals and scholasticism, an intellectual system of thought that attempted to reconcile Christian theology with _____________.
What was Abbot Suger's primary goal, based on his reading of religious texts by the Pseudo-Dionysius, for the redesign of the Abbey Church at Saint-Denis?
all of the above
In 1194, a fire destroyed most of the church of __________, but spared the Royal Portal and its windows and the crypt.
Holes cut in the stone of the wall and filled with stained glass are called __________.
The ________________of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris exemplifies the Court Style of Gothic art that emerged in Paris during the mid-thirteenth century.
lavish use of stained glass and rich materials
Architects in Germany developed the__________ church, characterized by a nave and side aisle whose vaults all reach the same height.
The first true Gothic hall church was the Church of __________ of Hungary in Marburg.
In its day, art of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was called the _______________, but Giorgio Vasari, an artist and art historian of the sixteenth century, coined the term "Gothic" as a pejorative reference to its rejection of the classical principles that regained popularity in the Renaissance.
Gothic cathedrals differ from those built in the Romanesque period in their _______________.
shift toward more open, light-filled spaces
The large-scale single figures in the lancets of the north transept at Chartres (Fig. 16-13) refer to the ______________.
royal ancestry of Christ and the Church
The development of __________at Reims Cathedral made possible even larger areas of stained glass in relation to wall surface.
The historical manuscripts compiled by Matthew Paris at St. Albans Monastery in England include__________________.
marginal drawings that were integral to his writing
What architectural feature distinguishes English Gothic cathedrals from those built in France?
A tower at the crossing served as the focal point.
The oldest functioning synagogue in Europe, the Altneuschul (Fig. 16-27), is based on what Christian architectural form?
Gothic hall churches
What quality of painted crucifixes, such as the one attributed to Coppo di Marcovaldo (Fig. 16-34), would make them popular in churches of the Italian mendicants?
they encouraged an emotional and empathetic response among viewers
What architectural element of the choir at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis was introduced at the time of Abbot Suger's redesign?
non-load-bearing walls filled with stained glass
The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all __________, which means that the followers believe that only one god created and rules the universe.
The Jewish law prohibiting the worship of idols made the production of ___________most suspect.
sculpture in the round
The two parts of the Christian Bible are the __________ and the __________.
Old Testament; New Testament
Discoveries at Dura-Europos in the 1930's contradicted what long-held scholarly belief?
Jews of this period did not create any sort of figural art.
Which object is an example of iconic imagery in Christian art?
The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia (Fig. 7-16)
Where would the congregation have focused their attention during religious services at Hagia Sophia?
The Eucharist is an elaborate ceremony in Christian worship involving the ritual consumption of bread and wine, identified as the _______________of Christ.
body and blood
The extensive use of marble, colored glass, and gold mosaics to decorate the interior of the Church of San Vitale (Fig. 7-21) had what effect on the structure?
It made the structure appear to dissolve into shimmering light and color.
Where are many of the best examples of Christian churches of the Middle Byzantine era located?
Which object includes a "Dëesis" as a plea to Christ for the owner's forgiveness and salvation?
Harbaville Triptych (Fig. 7-38)
The poet and philosopher Theodore Metochites is responsible for the elaborate program of decorative ________ that cover(s) every inch of the funerary chapel at the church of the Monastery of Christ in Chora (p. 257).
Architects of the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice relied on a Greek-cross plan, marking each square unit with a separate __________.
Near the end of the first century, the _____________replaced the scroll as the primary form of recording texts.
Early Christians often employed stories from _______________ as prefigurations of important events in the Christian Bible.
the hebrew bible
The youthful, beardless Jesus, depicted in the Catacomb of Commodilla, holds a book to emphasize his role as______.
Islam's aniconic tradition can be traced to ______________.
Muhammad's destruction of pagan idols in the Kaaba
A key feature distinguishing the Dome of the Rock from Early Christian and Byzantine buildings is ______________.
the central-plan structure
The invention of __________led to the development of increasingly elaborate scripts for use in calligraphy.
Islamic metalworking skills are demonstrated in the ____________decorating Baptistery of St. Louis (Fig. 8-16).
gold and silver inlay
What did the Ottomans do to the church of Hagia Sophia when they conquered Constantinople?
converted it to an Islamic mosque
What type of decoration is used for the Kaaba (Fig. 8-2) in Mecca?
a black textile embroidered with Qur'anic verses in gold
Early Qur'an manuscripts ______________ because they were shared by multiple readers simultaneously.
had only three to five lines per page
The Book of Kells (Fig. 14-1) was produced on __________, an animal skin prepared for writing.
Much of our knowledge of cultures from the Early Middle Ages in Europe comes from discovery of their _________________.
The development of minuscule, _________________, was a significant contribution of the Carolingian period.
a new clear, lowercase script that increased the legibility of manuscripts
The timber churches that survive in rural Norway are called __________ churches, from the four huge staffs that form their structural core.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the so-called animal style which dominated the arts by the fifth century?
a preference for asymmetrical compositions
The burial site discovered at Sutton Hoo revealed the grave's occupant had been buried in a ________________.
How does the Page with St. Matthew the Evangelist from the Ebbo Gospels (Fig. 14-18) demonstrate Carolingian innovation in manuscript illumination
the modeling of the figure and drapery
What structure is at the center of the Saint Gall Plan (Fig. 14-16) which reflects the basic design used in the layout of medieval monasteries
Why did many Ottonian cathedrals burn down in the eleventh century?
Their timber roofs made them susceptible to fire.
The Doors of Bishop Bernward in Hildesheim (Fig. 14-24) are notable as the most complex __________ since antiquity.
In addition to the energetic painting characterizing the Hitda Gospels (Fig. 14-25), the Gospels of Otto III (Fig. 14-26) show another Ottonian style, which was influenced by __________art in its sharply outlined drawings and lavish fields of gold.
Vikings erected large memorial stones: __________ contained inscriptions and __________ were covered with figural decoration.
rune stones; picture stones
The page illustrating Matthew Writing His Gospel from the Lindisfarne Gospel Book (page 431, Fig. B) demonstrates _________.
the artist intentionally suppressed classical style to emphasize local artistic tradition