Final Exam

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The governing body for the city of Florence met in the __________.

Palazzo Della Signoria

__________ was commissioned to paint the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel (Fig. 17-7).

Giotto

A(n) __________ specialty, pictorial needlework, gained such fame that it came to be called __________.

English; opus anglicanum

The Book of Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux (page 550) by __________ contains special prayers to be recited during the day and into the evening.

Jean Pucelle

__________ painted a huge altarpiece for the high altar of Siena Cathedral.

Duccio

__________ was a master mason for Exeter Cathedral (Fig. 17-18).

Thomas of Whitney

In Northern Europe, particularly Germany, devotional images which depict Mary mourning her dead son, Jesus, are known as __________.

Vesperbild

The city council of Siena commissioned__________ to fresco the city hall with scenes of good and bad government.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

__________ was the patron saint of painters.

Saint Luke

Wealthy Italian families added __________ to their homes, both for the purpose of defense and to symbolize their power.

towers

The transformation of the Italo-Byzantine style can be detected in the Virgin and Child Enthroned (Fig. 17-5) by __________.

Cimabue

The __________, surrounded by a court of angels and Siena's patron saints, are the subject of the Maestà's (Figs 17-11a and 17-11b) central panel.

Virgin and Christ Child

The term "maniera greca" refers to the ___________ influence seen in Italian painting throughout the fourteenth century.

Byzantine

The term "modeling" refers to ___________________, which allows artists to simulate three-dimensional forms in painted figures.

the use of light and dark pigment tones

The recognizable cityscape in Ambrogio Lorenzetti's The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country (Fig. 17-15) is a tribute to his patron_____________.

The Siena City Council (The Nine)

The _____________style seen in the great east window of Exeter Cathedral (Fig. 17-17) paved the way for the regularity, balanced horizontal and vertical lines, and plain wall or window surfaces that characterize Renaissance architecture in England.

Perpendicular

Which of the following is NOT depicted in Ambrogio Lorenzetti's Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country (Fig. 17-15)?

portraits of Sienna's civic leaders

According to the artist Cennino Cennini, painting on panel may involve all of the following EXCEPT___________.

giornata

Which of the following does NOT apply to Giotto's frescoes of the Scrovegni Chapel (Fig. 17-7)?

Their placement complements the building's architectural details.

What theme was most popular for the narrative images decorating personal luxury items such as small chests, mirror backs and combs?

courtly romance

Cistercians did NOT rely on __________to achieve beauty in their architecture.

B. elaborately carved and painted figural decoration

The word _________ refers to the cross worn by Crusaders and pilgrims.

crusade

Intellectual life in the Romanesque period involved the establishment of the first universities in the cities of __________, __________, __________, and __________.

Bologna; Paris; Oxford; Cambridge

The church of Sant Vincenc (Figs 15-3) is an example of the "First Romanesque" because _____________.

it relies on stone-vaulting and masonry construction

Upon its completion in 1130, the church of __________ was the largest church in Europe.

Cluny III

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Fig. 15-11) is actually the __________ of the Cathedral complex at Pisa.

campanile

Durham Cathedral (Fig. 15-18) introduced a new system of masonry __________, which would become a hallmark of later Gothic architecture.

ribbed groin vaults

In the Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac (Fig. 15-22,) the image of __________ dominates the tympanum.

Christ in Majesty

The Romanesque technique of portraying narrative scenes in the geometric confines of column capitals is called a(n) __________.

historiated capital

The nave of the Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe (Fig. 15-14) shows the biblical story of _________.

Tower of Babel

The Bayeux Embroidery (page 484-485) tells the story of the __________ conquest of England.

Norman

The oldest known bronze tomb effigy is of King __________.

Rudolf of Swabia

What was the motivation for many churches to alter the traditional basic basilica plan by adding transepts with eastern chapels that led to an ambulatory with radiating chapels around the apse?

the need to accommodate pilgrims

Which architectural feature was used in Romanesque churches?

all of the above

What architectural element of Romanesque portals was used to depict the most important imagery?

tympanum

What was an advantage of stone masonry in the construction of cathedrals?

All of the above.

What architectural feature of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption in Pisa (Fig. 15-11) is distinctive of Tuscan churches?

the marble facing of the exterior

During the Romanesque period, ________ largely replaced mosaics on the walls of churches outside of Rome.

painted murals

Probably made by Anglo-Saxon women, the Bayeux Embroidery (page 484) was produced by what technique?

stem and laid-and-couched stitches

Which of the following contributed to the exchange of artistic styles during the Romanesque period?

all of the above

In the Gothic period, Thomas Aquinas made __________ the intellectual center of Europe.

Paris

Some scholars suggest a relationship between the geometric order underlying Gothic cathedrals and scholasticism, an intellectual system of thought that attempted to reconcile Christian theology with _____________.

Classical philosophy

What was Abbot Suger's primary goal, based on his reading of religious texts by the Pseudo-Dionysius, for the redesign of the Abbey Church at Saint-Denis?

all of the above

In 1194, a fire destroyed most of the church of __________, but spared the Royal Portal and its windows and the crypt.

Chartres

Holes cut in the stone of the wall and filled with stained glass are called __________.

plate tracery

What was the primary form of monumental painting during the Gothic period?

stained glass

The ________________of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris exemplifies the Court Style of Gothic art that emerged in Paris during the mid-thirteenth century.

lavish use of stained glass and rich materials

Architects in Germany developed the__________ church, characterized by a nave and side aisle whose vaults all reach the same height.

hall

The first true Gothic hall church was the Church of __________ of Hungary in Marburg.

Saint Elizabeth

In its day, art of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was called the _______________, but Giorgio Vasari, an artist and art historian of the sixteenth century, coined the term "Gothic" as a pejorative reference to its rejection of the classical principles that regained popularity in the Renaissance.

French style

Gothic cathedrals differ from those built in the Romanesque period in their _______________.

shift toward more open, light-filled spaces

True flying buttresses were first used at _________________.

the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris

The large-scale single figures in the lancets of the north transept at Chartres (Fig. 16-13) refer to the ______________.

royal ancestry of Christ and the Church

The development of __________at Reims Cathedral made possible even larger areas of stained glass in relation to wall surface.

bar tracery

The historical manuscripts compiled by Matthew Paris at St. Albans Monastery in England include__________________.

marginal drawings that were integral to his writing

What architectural feature distinguishes English Gothic cathedrals from those built in France?

A tower at the crossing served as the focal point.

The oldest functioning synagogue in Europe, the Altneuschul (Fig. 16-27), is based on what Christian architectural form?

Gothic hall churches

What quality of painted crucifixes, such as the one attributed to Coppo di Marcovaldo (Fig. 16-34), would make them popular in churches of the Italian mendicants?

they encouraged an emotional and empathetic response among viewers

What architectural element of the choir at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis was introduced at the time of Abbot Suger's redesign?

non-load-bearing walls filled with stained glass

The city of __________ was a major center of book production in the Gothic period.

Paris

The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all __________, which means that the followers believe that only one god created and rules the universe.

monotheistic

The Jewish law prohibiting the worship of idols made the production of ___________most suspect.

sculpture in the round

The first synagogue at Dura Europus (Fig. 7-3) was located in a(n) __________

house

The two parts of the Christian Bible are the __________ and the __________.

Old Testament; New Testament

Like the Romans, early Christians first used central-plan buildings as _________.

tombs

Discoveries at Dura-Europos in the 1930's contradicted what long-held scholarly belief?

Jews of this period did not create any sort of figural art.

What area of the catacombs was NOT commonly decorated with painted imagery?

loculi

Which object is an example of iconic imagery in Christian art?

The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia (Fig. 7-16)

Where would the congregation have focused their attention during religious services at Hagia Sophia?

the dome

The Archangel Michael diptych (Fig. 7-26) is a portion of a __________-panel object.

two

What allows the dome of Hagia Sophia to appear to float mysteriously?

All of the above

The Eucharist is an elaborate ceremony in Christian worship involving the ritual consumption of bread and wine, identified as the _______________of Christ.

body and blood

The extensive use of marble, colored glass, and gold mosaics to decorate the interior of the Church of San Vitale (Fig. 7-21) had what effect on the structure?

It made the structure appear to dissolve into shimmering light and color.

Where are many of the best examples of Christian churches of the Middle Byzantine era located?

Greece

Which object includes a "Dëesis" as a plea to Christ for the owner's forgiveness and salvation?

Harbaville Triptych (Fig. 7-38)

The poet and philosopher Theodore Metochites is responsible for the elaborate program of decorative ________ that cover(s) every inch of the funerary chapel at the church of the Monastery of Christ in Chora (p. 257).

frescoes

Architects of the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice relied on a Greek-cross plan, marking each square unit with a separate __________.

dome

Near the end of the first century, the _____________replaced the scroll as the primary form of recording texts.

codex

Early Christians often employed stories from _______________ as prefigurations of important events in the Christian Bible.

the hebrew bible

The youthful, beardless Jesus, depicted in the Catacomb of Commodilla, holds a book to emphasize his role as______.

A teacher

Islam's aniconic tradition can be traced to ______________.

Muhammad's destruction of pagan idols in the Kaaba

The holy book of Islam is called the __________.

Qur'an

The Muslim place of worship is called the __________.

mosque

A key feature distinguishing the Dome of the Rock from Early Christian and Byzantine buildings is ______________.

the central-plan structure

The wall of the prayer hall that is closest to Mecca is called the __________ wall.

qibla

Which of the following is commonly used as a decorative element in Islamic architecture?

water

____________is/are commonly used to decorate luxury objects made by Muslim artists.

calligraphy

Figurative imagery is most common in what type of Islamic art?

architectural ornament

Islamic artists who used what media were most highly esteemed?

calligraphy

The invention of __________led to the development of increasingly elaborate scripts for use in calligraphy.

the codex

Islamic metalworking skills are demonstrated in the ____________decorating Baptistery of St. Louis (Fig. 8-16).

gold and silver inlay

A(n) __________was a college for religious and legal studies.

madrasa

Which ornamental form typically employs marble or other colorful stone?

mosaic

What language is common to all Muslims?

arabic

What did the Ottomans do to the church of Hagia Sophia when they conquered Constantinople?

converted it to an Islamic mosque

What type of decoration is used for the Kaaba (Fig. 8-2) in Mecca?

a black textile embroidered with Qur'anic verses in gold

Lusterware refers to a technique used to make ceramic surfaces resemble_________.

precious metals

Early Qur'an manuscripts ______________ because they were shared by multiple readers simultaneously.

had only three to five lines per page

European cultures became familiar with Islamic art through _________.

Islamic presence in Europe

Sinan's crowning achievement as an architect was the __________.

Mosque of Sultan Selim

The Book of Kells (Fig. 14-1) was produced on __________, an animal skin prepared for writing.

vellum

__________ are people from outside the empire who could only "barble" Greek or Latin.

Barbarians

Much of our knowledge of cultures from the Early Middle Ages in Europe comes from discovery of their _________________.

jewelry

Christians in the Muslim territories were called __________.

Mozarabs.

Charlemagne's private chapel was in the city of __________.

Aachen

The development of minuscule, _________________, was a significant contribution of the Carolingian period.

a new clear, lowercase script that increased the legibility of manuscripts

Seafaring bands of Norse seamen were called __________ or "people from the coves."

Vikings

The timber churches that survive in rural Norway are called __________ churches, from the four huge staffs that form their structural core.

stave

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the so-called animal style which dominated the arts by the fifth century?

a preference for asymmetrical compositions

The burial site discovered at Sutton Hoo revealed the grave's occupant had been buried in a ________________.

ship

Mozarabic style combines Christian forms with the artistic style of what culture?

Islamic

How does the Page with St. Matthew the Evangelist from the Ebbo Gospels (Fig. 14-18) demonstrate Carolingian innovation in manuscript illumination

the modeling of the figure and drapery

What structure is at the center of the Saint Gall Plan (Fig. 14-16) which reflects the basic design used in the layout of medieval monasteries

a cloister

Why did many Ottonian cathedrals burn down in the eleventh century?

Their timber roofs made them susceptible to fire.

The Doors of Bishop Bernward in Hildesheim (Fig. 14-24) are notable as the most complex __________ since antiquity.

bronze-casting project

In addition to the energetic painting characterizing the Hitda Gospels (Fig. 14-25), the Gospels of Otto III (Fig. 14-26) show another Ottonian style, which was influenced by __________art in its sharply outlined drawings and lavish fields of gold.

Byzantine

Vikings erected large memorial stones: __________ contained inscriptions and __________ were covered with figural decoration.

rune stones; picture stones

Which material was NOT used by Ottonian artists?

stone

The page illustrating Matthew Writing His Gospel from the Lindisfarne Gospel Book (page 431, Fig. B) demonstrates _________.

the artist intentionally suppressed classical style to emphasize local artistic tradition

Which architectural feature of Charlemagne's Palace Chapel at Aachen (Fig. 14-13) did NOT derive from Roman or Early Christian sources?

the ground-level ambulatory

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