proteins that attatch loosely to the outer surface of the membrane
proteins that extend into the membrane
integral proteins that span across the membrane, appearing at both surfaces
proteins that allow the passage of certain ions and small polar molecules through membranes
recognition proteins that have short polysaccharide chains (oligosaccharides) attatched. The oligosaccharide part extends away from the surface of the membrane.
these molecules are distributed throughout the phospholipid bylayer to provide some rigidity to the plasma membrane of animal cells.
DNA spread out within the nucleus as a threadlike matrix
bundles of lengthy DNA coiled up by histones
nucleoli (singular: nucleolus)
concentrations of DNA in the process of manufacturing the components of ribosomes. There may be one or more visible inside the nucleus.
a group of flattened sacs arragned like a stack of bowls tha tmodify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles
small, spherically shaped sacs that bud from the outside surface of the Golgi apparatus. they often migrate to and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents outside the cell.
break down various substances, including hydrogen peroxide, fatty acids, and amino acids.
Microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
three types of protein fibers in the cytoskeleton, ordered in decreasing diameter. they help shape or coordinate movement in the cytoskeleton.
made of tubulin, these are found in the spindle apparatus during cell division and in flagella/cilia.
these provide support for maintaining the shape of the cell
these are made of the protein actin and are involved in cell MOTILITY.
found in anmials, this is found in the area between adjacent cells.
a cell junction (an anchoring juntion) in animal cells that consists of proteins that bind adjacent cells together, providing mechanical stability to tissues. they're associated with protein filaments thatextend into the interior of the cell and serve to hold cellular structures together.
___juntions a tightly stitched seams between animal cells that completely encircles each cell, producing a seal that prevents the passage of materials between the cells
___juntions are a type of communicating juntion which are narrow tunnels between animal cells.
narrow channels between plant cells.
___cells do not contain lysosomes, centrioles, and cholesterol.
the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and realising their contents to the outside of the cell (common with products doomed for export)
the process of capturing a substance outside the cell when the plasma membrane merges to enjulf it (nom). The substance subsequently enters the cytoplasm enclose in a vesicle.
("cellular eating"). a type of endocytosis that occurs when UNDISSOLVED material enters the cell. a vesicle is formed.
("celluar drinking"). a type of endocytosis that occurs when DISSOLVED substances enter the cell. a vesicle is formed.
a type of pinocytosis that occurs when SPECIFIC molecules in the fluid surrounding the cell bind to specialized receptors that concentrate in coated pits in the plasma membrane. The membrane pits, receptors, and their specific molecules (called ligands) fold inward and a vesicle is formed.