Soc. Psy. Final

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a peceived incompatibility of actions or goals

conflict

a condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships

peace

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Tragedy of the commons

social trap

occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse of the shared resources

tragedy of the commons

games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. with cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose

non zero sum games

reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive

mirror image perceptions

contact on an equal basis. just as a relationship between people of unequal staus breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of same status.

equal status contact

a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another

superorinate goal

seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties

bargaining

an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions

mediation

resolution fo a conflict by a neutral thrid party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement

arbitration

win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit

integrative agreements

acronym for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction" a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions

GRIT

what are the 4 Cs of peacemaking?

contact, cooperation, communication, conciliation

incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it

misinformation effect

a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. arises when someone threatens our freedom of action

reactance

this form of police interviewing improves accuracy of information

cognitive interview

the more confident that an eyewitness seems, the more likely the jury will believe their testimony. true or false

true

jurors think that eyewitnesses who remember trivial details are more accurate. true or false

true

states with the death penalty have a lower homicide rate. true or false

false

in sherif's study of two summer camp groups, conflict arouse when this was introduced

competition

according to Myers' discussion of intuition, which statement is true?
a. our intuitions about ourselves are usually true
b. intuitions are carefully considered beliefs
c. intution is both powerful and perilous
d. intuition is not important

c

according to the text, values enter the work of social psychology when researchers
a. collect data for their studies
b. present the results of their studies
c. summarize their studies
d. choose the topics of their studies

d

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next is referred to as
a. nationality
b. race
c. social representations
d. culture

d

another name for the "i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the
a. retrospective bias
b. information bias
c. prediction bias
d. hindsight bias

d

a testable proposition that describes a relationship which may exist between events is a
a. statement
b. bias
c. correlation
d. hypothesis

d

studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others describes what type of research
a. correlational research
b. experimental research
c. laboratory research
d. field research

b

variable x is correlated with variable y. which of the folloing could explain this correlation
a. x causes y
b. y causes x
c. a third variable causes or influences both x and y
d. all of these are possible explanations

d

your psychology professor tells you that she is collecting data on the amount that students study and their grades (i.e. she is asking each student to report how many hours he/she studies each week, so that she can determine if there is a relationship between hours spent studying and grades) what type of research is this?
a. correlational research
b. experimental research
c. controlled research
d. hypothetical research

a

a sample in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is called a __ sample
a. mixed
b. diverse
c. fair
d. random

d

an important factor in survey research is how closely the sample reflects the population under study. this is referred to as sample
a. fairness
b. strategy
c. size
d. representativeness

d

research on the wording of survey questions suggests that
a. how questions are framed can influence how they are answered
b. how questions are framed has very little influence on how they are answered
c. wording is an unimportant element of survey research
d. framing the questions differently will not influence the results

a

the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the __ variable
a. control
b. independent
c. dependent
d. correlational

b

an experimentor exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. aggression was the
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. control variable
d. confounding variable

b

a major requirement of the ethical principles of social psychological research is that the researcher
a. use random sampling and assignment
b. protect participants from harm and significant discomfort
c. refrain from using any deception in the research design
d. ensure that all participants know what is expected of them

b

deception in an experiment is
a. unethical
b. always required
c. used only if it is essential and justified
d. useful in affecting subjects' willingness to participate

c

the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they actually are is referred to as the __ effect
a. transparency
b. audience
c. spotlight
d. headlight

c

the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others is referred to as the illusion of
a. transparency
b. an audience
c. the spotlight
d. the headlight

a

when you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to __ what others think about your nervousness
a. understimate
b. overestimate
c. successfully predict
d. have no idea

b

a person's answer to the question "who am i" comprises his or her
a. personality
b. self-schema
c. self-esteem
d. self-concept

d

a study by Gilovich, Medvec and Savitsky had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Minilow T-shirts. this study explored which concept mentioned in the text
a. transparency effect
b. audience effect
c. spotlight effect
d. headlight effect

c

images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called our
a. hoped-for selves
b. transparent selves
c. possible selves
d. eventual selves

c

an example of how social comparisons can actually breed misery, rather than stisfaction is when we
a. compare ourselves to close friends
b. compare ourselves to strangers
c. raise the standards by which we evaluate our own attainments
d. lower the standards by which we evaluate our own attinments

c

a person from an __ culture is more likely to say went to the movie and a person from an __ culture is more likely to say i went to the movie
a. individualistic; collectivist
b. collectiviestic; individualistic
c. self-centered; other-centered
d. other-centered; self-centered

b

the planning fallacy is the tendency to
a. overestimate how long a task will take
b. not make plans
c. predict accurately how long a task will take
d. underestimate how long a task will take

d

when we accommodate and adjust to personal injuries, romantic breakups, and exam failures, we cope more readily than we would expect. Wilson and Gilbert referred to this phenomenon as
a. immune neglect
b. our psychological immune system
c. our psychological denial system
d. rationalizing

a

your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam and believes it was because of the professor wrote a very difficult exam. she is demonstrating a __ locus of control
a. internal
b. external
c. high
d. low

b

the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over reapeated negative events is called
a. depression
b. low self exteem
c. learned hopelessness
d. learned helplessness

d

if your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades are successful, it is likely that your self efficacy will
a. increase
b. decrease
c. stay the same
d. eventually become stable

a

according to your text, when we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to
a. view others as superior
b. view everyone as relatively average
c. ignore our strenths and focus on their strengths
d. see ourselves as better than the average person

d

john is nervous about his tennis mathch, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. this could be an example of
a. self handicapping
b. self serving bias
c. impression management
d. self presentation

a

activating particular associations in memory is called
a. triggering
b. initiation
c. galvanization
d. priming

d

despite reading numerous research studies that report the association of fast food consumption with heart disease and diabetes, reachel continues to eat fast food and thinks that it is harmless. rechel's thinking is an example of
a. belief assimilation
b. belief consolidation
c. belief perserverence
d. operation of the availability heuristic

c

incorporating inaccurate information into one's memory of an event, after witnessing the event and receiving misleading information about it is called
a. the priming effect
b. the confirmation bias
c. belief perserverence
d. the misinformation effect

d

your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of august, you remember it as being a fantastic time, this is an example of
a. perserverence bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. correspondence bias
d. rosy retrospection

d

explicit thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called
a. controlled processing
b. automatic processing
c. external processing
d. intentional processing

a

the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs is called the
a. perserverance bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. correspondance bias
d. overconfidence phenomenon

d

one reason people are overconfident is that theya re not inclined to seek out information
a. from experts
b. that is objective and factual
c. that involves judging estimates and comparisons
d. that might disprove what they believe

d

which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements
a. an implicit attitude
b. an explicit attitude
c. a heuristic
d. a confirmation bias

c

although travelors in the US are more likely to die in an authomobile crash than on a commercial flight covering the same distance, people often assume that flying is more dangerous than driving. wheat type of heurisitc are people using when they make this assumption
a. availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
c. vividness heuristic
d. matching heuristic

a

the perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called
a. a representative heuristic
b. an availability heuristic
c. an illusory correlation
d. the overconfidence phenomenon

c

according to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. this is an example of
a. arrogance
b. a lack of intuition
c. misattribution
d. miscommunication

c

a fellow student is consistently late for class. you assume this is because he is lazy and unorganized. what type of attribution are you making for his behavior
a. motivational
b. dispositional
c. situational
b. illusory

b

fundamental attribution error is the tendency for observers to ___ situational influences and ___ dispostional influences on behavior
a. overestimate; underestimate
b. underestimate; overestimate
c. underestimate; ignore
d. overestimate; ignore

b

you walk into your classroom just as the class before yours is getting out. you notice two people standing by a lectern at the front of the classroom: a 50 year old man and a 36 year old woman. you assume the man is the instructor and the woman is the student because most of your professors are older men. this is an eample of
a. the availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
c. the overconfidence phenomenon
d. the confirmation bias

b

while sitting at a red light one her way to work, amber fumes why is it every time i'm late for work i get stuck at these red lights? amber most clearly holds a
a. illusory correlation
b. illusion of control
c. representativeness heuristic
d. misattribution

a

in the ABCs of attitudes, C stands for
a. care
b. connotation
c. cognition
d. concern

c

accofding to your text __ is the term Batson and his collegues used to describe the tendency to appear moral while avoiding the costs of being so
a. behavioral inconsistency
b. moral cowardice
c. moral hypocrisy
d. attitude behavior discrepancey

c

the implicit association test IAT intends to
a. meausre conscious attitudes
b. measure unconscious attitudes
c. measure both conscious and unconscious attitudes
d. measure our behaviors

b

the effect of __ on __ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo's classic study of a simulated prison
a. attitudes; behaviors
b. roles; attitudes
c. roles; behaviors
d. attitudes; roles

c

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the __ phenomenon
a. foot in the door
b. lowball
c. compliance
d. conformity

a

impression management or making a good impression by being consistent in our behavior is another term for
a. self presentation theory
b. self consistency theory
c. cognitive dissonance theory
d. self perception theory

a

which of the following theories assumes that to reduce discomfort we justify our actions to ourselves
a. self presentation theory
b. self consistency theory
c. cognitive dissonance theory
d. self perception theory

c

a research study had experiemental participants perform a dull task but paid them to lie by telling a prospective participant that the task had been enjoyable. results showed that they participants who were paid __ came to believe that the task had been __
a. $1; tedious and boring
b. $1; interesting and enjoyable
c. $20; interesting and enjoyable
d. $20; tedious and boring

b

after making important decisions, we usually reduce dissonance by __ the chosen alternative and __ the unchosen option
a. focusing on; ignoring
b. ignoring; focusing on
c. downgrading; upgrading
d. upgrading; downgrading

d

which theory assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes and beliefs
a. self presentation
b. cognitive dissonance
c. self justification
d. self perception

d

Zimbardo attributed the behavior of the subjects in his stanford prison study to
a. his leadership behavior
b. the roles of the subjects played
c. the personality traits of prisoners
d. failures to process relevant information

b

when people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. this is called the
a. foot in the door effect
b. self justivication effect
c. overjustification effect
d. insuffiecient justification effect

c

a store owner is conerned about shoplifiting. research on petent attitudes suggests that he can reduce theft by
a. installing metal detectors
b. attaching anti theft devices on his merchandise
c. installing eye level mirrors in his store
d. placing security guards at all exits

c

juan needed to decide if he should live at home with his parents or in a dorm this year. he liked the idea of the freedom of the dorm but knew it was cheaper to live at home. according to cognitive dissonance theory, after deciding to staty at home Juan will likely
a. wish that he had decided to move to the dorm
b. fell like he made the right decision but wish he could have afforded the move
c. feel confident that he made the best decision; dorms are expensive and dirty anyway
d. change his mind at the last minute and ultimatley live in the dorms

c

when asked if she likes her new neighbor alice says i guess so. I say hello to her all the time and loaned her my favorite book the other day. Alice's feelings are best explained by
a. self perception theory
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. the insufficient justification effect
d. the overjustification effect

a

the evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches is called
a. evolutionalry adaptation
b. evolutionary psychology
c. natural adaptation
d. natural selection

d

seven year old mary says thank you after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. this best illustrates the influence of a
a. norm
b. schema
c. role
d. stereotype

a

the buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called personal
a. zone
b. space
c. place
d. distance

b

in psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced is referred to as
a. sex
b. gender
c. sexual orientation
d. culture

b

Pratto and her colleagues reported that __ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as public defender
a. the young
b. the elderly
c. men
d. women

d

the vicarious experience of another's feelings or ability to put oneself in another's shoes is
a. norm
b. altruism
c. sympathy
d. empathy

d

according to research on gender differences, which statement is not true
a. women are more skilled at expressing emotions nonverbally
b. women smile more than men
c. women describe themselves as having more empathy than men
d. women are more vulnerable to autism

d

evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because
a. males outnumber females
b. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival
c. males and females are socialized differently
d. of differences in brain chemistry

b

evolutionary psychology would explian the male tendency to be attracted to women's physical feautures of youth and health because of
a. norms
b. roles
c. cultural support
d. reproductive fitness

d

higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in
a. violent male criminals
b. male lawyers
c. gay men
d. married men

a

pat has qualities like assertiveness, a traditionally masculine trait , as well as nurturance, a quality associated with traditional femininity. pat could be described as
a. gender ambivalent
b. role conflicted
c. androgynous
d. gender diffused

c

in the mid 1960s married women in the US devoted seven times as many hours to housework as did their husbands, yet in the mid 1990s, this figure was down to two times as many hours. this pattern reflects how gender roles
a. are learned
b. are biologically determined
c. vary by culture
d. vary over time

d

a relationship in which the effect of one factor such as biology depends on another factor such as environment is the definition of
a. competition
b. interaction
c. interpolation
d. reciprocation

b

women are to men as __ is to __
a. independence; connectedness
b. competition; cooperation
c. expresseing emotions nonverbally; social dominance
d. sexual; aggressive

c

studies suggest that most women, if they stress one factory more than any other, tend to prefer men who
a. are healthy
b. are physically attractive
c. appear to be young and strong
d. have substantial resources and status

d

conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request, while privately disagreeing is called
a. obedience
b. acceptance
c. cohesiveness
d. compliance

d

if you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is an example of
a. obedience
b. acceptance
c. inforamtional influence
d. compliance

a

in his classic study of __ sherif had participants in groups call out estimates of the distance that a small point of light appeared to move in a dark room
a. obedience
b. group cohesiveness
c. norm formation
d. psychological reactance

c

a year after his original study, sherif's participants were retested alone and gave answers that supported the original group's norm. this suggests that the process involved was really
a. reactance
b. compliance
c. obedience
d. acceptance

d

in the spring of 1954, Seattle residents were alarmed by widespread reports of damage by a mysterious windshield pitting agent. according to the text, the true cause of public concern was most likely
a. fallout from recent Pacific testing of the H bomb
b. mass suggestibility
c. psychological reactance
d. the autokinetic phenomenon

b

Milgram's studies explored __; Asch's studies explored__
a. obedience; conformity
b. conformity; norm formation
c. obedience; norm formation
d. conformity; obedience

a

the most famous and controversial experiments in social psychology were conducted by
a. sherif
b. milgrim
c. asch
d. watson

b

when participants in milgram's experiments wanted to quit, they were given
a. shocks to keep them going
b. money as an incentive to keep going
c. up to four verbal prods to keep them going
d. a reward for being one of the few to disobey

c

a psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of milgram's participants a year after their participation concluded that
a. none had been harmed
b. many were suspicious of all authorities
c. a minority of them had lowered self esteem
d. most regretted having served in milgram's study

a

research on group size and conformity has shown that there is more conformity with
a. 1-2 people than 3-5
b. 3-5 people than 1-2
c. more than 5 people than 3-5
d. 15 or more people

b

group members who feel attracted to the group are more responsive to its influence. this fact illustrates the impact of __ on conformity
a. unanimity
b. status
c. chesiveness
d. comorbidity

c

a concern for __ produces normative influence, while a concern for __ produces informaitonal influence
a. being liked; being correct
b. being correct; being liked
c. being correct; gaining status
d. social roles; being liked

a

milgram found that
a. very few people are willing to obey another person if it will lead to harm
b. only authoritarian persons are willing to obey
c. approximately 65% of his subjects were highly obedient
d. most people who obeyed did so happily

c

sherif's study took advantage of
a. the phi phenomenon
b. natural selection
c. obedience
d. the autokinetic phenomenon

d

all of the following factors increase the liklihood of obedience except
a. the distance of the victim
b. age and gender of the victim
c. the closeness of the authority
d. prestige of the institution/environment

b

which of the following is an example of aggression as it is defined in the text
a. sam accidentally slams the door too quickly and it hits tims kneww
b. luisa ures her classmates not to vote for marcy for dorm senator citing some rumors about marcys social life
c. carla a dentitst deliveres a shot of novocain before pulling her paitients tooth
d. joes eagerness and enthusiasm resulted in his being promoted to sales manager in a very short time

b

__ aggression springs from anger and its only goal is to injure
a. manipulative
b. duplictitous
c. hostile
d. instrumental

c

freud argued that aggression ultimately springs from
a. an innate sexual drive
b. a primitive death urge
c. observation of aggressive adult models
d. blocking of goal dircted behavior

b

a study of brain activity in the prefrontal cortex of murderors found
a. no differences between these men and normal controls
b. less activity than normal
c. spikes in activity level
d. more activity than normal

b

it was raining out and jessie's car had a flat tire. after she managed to fix it she arrived home late only to find someone had parked in her assigned parking spot when she entered her apartment she kicked her pet cat who was waiting at the door. jessies behavior is perhaps most easily explained in terms of
a. the frustration aggression theory
b. the adaptation level phenomenon
c. the murphys law
d. the social learning theory

a

your boss told you that she is giving you a 5 percent raise starting with your next paycheck. you are very pleased to hear this good news until you learn that some of your coworkers earned a 10 percent raise. now you are unhappy and angry about your raise. your experience is best explained in terms of
a. the adaptation level phenomeonon
b. the relative deprivation principle
c. displacement
d. parkinsons second law

b

according to bandura an important influence on one's tendency to be aggressive is
a. hormonal factors
b. how much anger or frustration has built up inside
c. one's hereditary predisposition to be aggressive
d. observations of others behavior

d

in a revision of the frustration aggression theory, berkowitz emphasized the importance of
a. anger, an emotional readiness to aggress
b. the role of biochemical influences such as alcohol
c. relative deprivation and the adaptation level phenomenon
d. catharsis as a reducer of frustration

a

violent crimes are more likely committed
a. in the winter rather than the summer
b. wehn the weather is hot
c. on nights with a full moon
d. during rainy periods

b

research suggests that the sight of a weapon can
a. elicit frustration
b. sensitize one to the dangers of violence
c. prime aggressive thoughts
d. produce catharsis

c

which of the following has been found to be an effect of sexual violence in movies and television
a. women are more likely to believe rape is a serious crime
b. men have become more accepting of violence against women
c. women have become more aggressive towrd other women
d. viewers are less accepting of violence against women

b

as part of therapy a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. the therapist apparently believes in
a. the social learning theory
b. parkinson's second law
c. the catharsis hypothesis
d. the adaptation level phenomenon

c

according to gintile and anderson, playing violent games might have a more toxic effect than watching violent television because
a. the players are passive
b. television appears more real
c. players play the role of a violent character
d. television violence is not rewarded

c

groups can amplify aggressive reacions partly by
a. inhibiting impulses
b. implementing the cathartic effect
c. diffusing responsibility
d. providing role models

c

what percentage of abused children go on to abuse their own children later in life
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40

c

a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing , positive interactions is the definition of
a. association anxiety
b. the need for attachment
c. the need to belong
d. affiliative predisposition

c

research on proximity and social attraction generally supports the view that
a. proximity breeds contempt
b. proximity leads to liking
c. proximity leads to affection and animosity with equal frequency
d. distance makes the heart grow fonder

b

the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as
a. the mere exposure effect
b. the novelty phenomenon
c. display liking
d. proactive stimulation

a

when people describe themselves in personal ads women often offer __ and seek __
a. companionship; attractivenss
b. attractiveness; status
c. status; companionship
d. committment; excitement

b

ruth is quite attractive but naomi is strikingly attractive. research suggests that if ruth makes 35,000 a year on her job, naomi will probably make __ doing the same job
a. slightly less money
b. the same amount
c. more money
d. significantly less money

c

_____ is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
a. compliance
b.persuasion
c. inoculation
d. sleeper effect

b

you are more likely to be persuaded when a mesage is
a. clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are unconvincing
b. difficult to comprehend and the arguments are unconvincing
c. clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are convincing
d difficult to comprehend and the arguments are convincing

c

sally is interested in purchasing a DVD player and is overwhelmed by the many different models available at her local electronics store. she decides to consult a magazine devoted to reviewing the quality of home electronics. After reading a number of articles stating the pros and cons of each model she decides on a dvd player. Sally has been persuaded to purchase this particular dvd player because of the __________ route to persuasion.
a. peripheral
b.central
c. logical
d. image

b

acording to Myers, advertisers for beverages and clothing tend to adopt marketing strategies that use the ______ route to persuasion.
a. peripheral
b. central
c. logical
d. image

a

which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?
a. peripheral
b. central
c. logical
d. image

b

a communicator is said to be ____________ when he or she is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy
a. honest
b. guileless
c. honorable
d. credible

d

you are attending a lecture by a banker and you expect her to advocate bank savings accounts. However, she advocates stock investments instead. Since her message goes against her own self-interest, you perceive her as _____ and the message as ______.
a.sincere; persuasive
b. insincere; not persuasive
c. sincere; not persuasive
d. insincere; persuasive

a

we tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
a. liking
b. similarity
c. consistency
d. physical appeal

b

The ______ effect refers to how in formation is presented first usually has the most influence.
a. recency
b. primacy
c. channel
d. initial

b

when Asch (1946) presented students with a description of someone as "intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious," they rated the person ______ than if the opposite order of adjectives was presented.
a. less positively
b. more positively
c. less attractive
d. more attractive

b

People tend to have different social and political attitudes depending on their age because the attitudes older people adopted when they were young persist through life largely unchanged. This refers to the _____ explanation for how age plays a role in persuasion.
a. generational
b. life cycle
c. age
d. time

a

According to our text, which is NOT an element of persuasion?
a. the communicator
b. the channel
c. the audience
d. the medium

d

A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
a. a distinctive ritual and beliefs that are related to its devotion to a god or person
b. the use of mind-altering drugs
c. isolation from the surrounding culture
d. a charismatic leader

b

Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes, which stimulates thinking in support of the initial attitude is known as
a. central route persuasion
b. attitude inoculation
c. psychological reactance
d. the boomerang effect

b

The tendency for people to believe that individuals get what they deserve and deserve what they get is called the _______ phenomenon.
a. retribution
b. just-world
c. ingroup bias
d. stereotype invulnerability

b

Two or more people who interact with and influence one another for longer than a few moments is what social psychologists call a
a. clan
b. crowd
c. group
d. mob

c

Triplett (1898) conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a positive relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel in the presence of other children. Later studies found the same pattern and dubbed it
a. the groupthink effect
b. the social facilitation effect
c. social loafing
d. deindividuation

b

Increased arousal enhances performance
a. only on enjoyable tasks
b. only on complex tasks
c. on dominant responses
d. on all responses

c

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